Neurodevelopmental Terminology and Causes of SNI

TermDefinitions and Comments
SNIUsed in this clinical report to indicate children with severe impairment of the CNS resulting in lifelong intellectual disability and limited verbal communication, often with coexisting motor impairment (eg, cerebral palsy)
Causes include genetic, metabolic, neurodegenerative, structural malformation of the CNS, CNS infection, anoxic or traumatic brain injury, unknown
Intellectual disabilityA disorder with onset during the developmental period that includes both intellectual and adaptive functioning deficits in conceptual, social, and practical domains
Also referred to as cognitive impairment; previously called mental retardation
References indicated in this report are typically of children who have severe to profound intellectual disability with associated limitations in communication
Cerebral palsyNonprogressive impairment of the CNS affecting muscle tone and control of movement
Not always associated with intellectual disability especially with milder forms, whereas those with severe impairment often have both
AutismNeurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and a pattern of repetitive behaviors and interests