TABLE 2

Stepwise, Multiple Logistic Regression Estimates Showing ORs for Early Puberty at 10–11 years in Boys and Girls, Separately and Jointly by Trajectories of Household SEP and the SEIFA Index of Disadvantage

VariablesOR (95% CI)
Model 1aModel 2bModel 3cModel 4d
Boys (n = 1886)
 Household SEPe (reference = extremely favorable)
  Favorable1.52 (0.97–2.37)1.53 (0.98–2.40)1.48 (0.93–2.36)1.46 (0.91–2.33)
  Average1.64 (1.06–2.53)*1.66 (1.07–2.57)*1.57 (0.99–2.48)1.56 (0.99–2.47)
  Unfavorable2.38 (1.49–3.69)***2.42 (1.58–3.70)***1.98 (1.26–3.11)**1.94 (1.23–3.06)**
  Extremely unfavorable4.49 (2.59–7.79)***4.69 (2.68–8.20)***4.40 (2.37–8.17)***4.22 (2.27–7.86)***
Trend of odds χ2 = 26.35, P < .001
 SEIFA index of disadvantagee (reference = consistently favorable)
   Average1.60 (1.15–2.222)**1.60 (1.15–2.23)1.36 (0.96–1.93)1.34 (0.95–1.90)
   Moderately unfavorable1.63 (1.17–2.29)**1.65 (1.17–2.31)**1.34 (0.94–1.91)1.31 (0.92–1.87)
   Deteriorating1.52 (0.91–2.56)1.53 (0.91–2.58)1.07 (0.58–1.97)1.05 (0.7–1.94)
Girls (n = 1770)
 Household SEPe (reference = extremely favorable)
  Favorable1.16 (0.77–1.75)1.14 (0.76–1.73)1.14 (0.73–1.78)1.15 (0.74–1.80)
  Average1.22 (0.82–1.82)1.20 (0.81–1.80)1.15 (0.74–1.77)1.14 (0.74–1.77)
  Unfavorable1.41 (0.95–2.09)1.43 (0.96–2.12)1.29 (0.84–2.00)1.24 (0.80–1.92)
  Extremely unfavorable2.38 (1.40–4.04)**2.42 (1.41–4.15)**2.00 (1.11–3.62)*1.96 (1.08–3.56)*
Trend of odds χ2 = 6.90, P = .0086
 SEIFA index of disadvantagee (reference = consistently favorable)
  Average1.12 (0.82–1.54)1.12 (0.82–1.54)1.13 (0. 80–1.59)1.13 (0.80–1.60)
  Moderate unfavorable1.12 (0.81–1.56)1.11 (0.80–1.55)1.04 (0.73–1.49)1.01 (0.70–1.44)
  Deteriorating1.28 (0.76–2.17)1.29 (0.76–2.20)0.98 (0.54–1.78)0.93 (0.51–1.69)
Total (n = 3656)
 Household SEPe (reference = extremely favorable)
  Favorable1.32 (0.98–1.79)1.33 (0.98–1.79)1.30 (0.95–1.80)1.30 (0.95–1.79)
  Average1.41 (1.05–1.89)*1.42 (1.06–1.90)*1.35 (0.99–1.85)1.35 (0.98–1.84)
  Unfavorable1.84 (1.38–2.45)***1.88 (1.41–2.50)***1.64 (1.20–2.23)**1.58 (1.16–2.16)**
  Extremely unfavorable3.27 (2.23–4.78)***3.42 (2.32–5.02)***3.93 (1.92–4.47)***2.82 (1.84–4.32)***
Trend of odds χ2 = 30.15, P < .001
 SEIFA index of disadvantagee (reference = consistently favorable)
  Average1.34 (1.06–1.68)*1.35 (1.07–1.69)*1.24 (0.98–1.59)1.23 (0.96–1.57)
  Moderately unfavorable1.35 (1.07–1.71)*1.36 (1.08–1.73)*1.19 (0.93–1.53)1.16 (0.90–1.49)
  Deteriorating1.38 (0.95–1.99)1.40 (0.97–2.03)1.04 (0.68–1.58)1.00 (0.65–1.53)
  • a Model 1: additionally controlled for age, maternal, and paternal early puberty reported in W5.

  • b Model 2: additionally controlled for perinatal risk factors including cesarean delivery, birth weight, gestational age, and breastfeeding in W1.

  • c Model 3: additionally controlled for childhood (W3, 4–5 years old), peripubertal (8–9 years old), and current (W6, 10–11 years old) adiposity, ΔBMI-SDS between W3 and W6, physical activity, and sleep duration in W5 and W6.

  • d Model 4: additionally controlled for ever having stepfathers for girls in W5 and W6 and stressful life events in W5 and W6.

  • e Both family and neighborhood disadvantage are included in the models concurrently.

  • * P < .05.

  • ** P < .01.

  • *** P < .001.