TABLE 2

Sample Characteristics After Propensity Score Matching

CharacteristicTotal (N = 450)Usual Care (n = 225)Intervention (n = 225)Standardized Differences
Child characteristics
 Sex0.08
  Male210 (46.7)100 (44.4)110 (48.9)
  Female240 (53.3)125 (55.6)115 (51.6)
 Race/ethnicity0.16
  Non-Hispanic white76 (16.9)39 (17.3)37 (16.4)
  African American44 (9.8)21 (9.3)23 (10.2)
  Hispanic264 (58.7)128 (56.9)136 (60.4)
  Other66 (14.7)37 (16.4)29 (12.9)
 Median age at enrollment, y0.04
  Median (quartile 1, quartile 3)1.5 (0.2, 4.0)1.7 (0.4, 4.0)1.27 (0.1, 3.8)
Family characteristics
 Respondent age, y0.07
  15–34409 (90.9)206 (91.6)203 (90.2)
  ≥3541 (9.1)19 (8.4)22 (9.8)
 Siblings0.07
  Only child106 (23.6)53 (23.6)53 (23.6)
  Any siblings344 (76.4)172 (76.4)172 (76.4)
 Education0.04
  Did not complete/currently high school/high school diploma253 (56.2)127 (56.4)126 (56.0)
  Beyond high school197 (43.8)98 (43.6)99 (44.0)
 Insurance0.03
  Medicaid/self-pay358 (79.6)179 (79.6)179 (79.6)
  Private92 (20.4)46 (20.4)46 (20.4)
 Income, $0.07
  <20 000211 (47.0)107 (47.6)104 (46.4)
  ≥20 000239 (53.0)118 (52.4)121 (53.6)
 Living situation0.05
  Living in place he or she owns109 (24.2)53 (23.6)56 (24.9)
  Not living in place he or she rents341 (75.8)172 (76.4)169 (75.1)
Mother’s health
 Health rating0.22
  Excellent/very good/good395 (87.8)205 (91.1)190 (84.4)
  Fair/poor55 (12.2)20 (8.9)35 (15.6)
 Prenatal care0.16
  Yes, all of the time358 (79.6)187 (83.1)171 (76.0)
  All other responses92 (20.4)38 (16.9)54 (24.0)
 Patient health questionnaire–2 (Q#1)320.10
  Yes390 (86.7)198 (88.0)192 (85.3)
  No60 (13.3)27 (12.0)33 (14.7)
 Patient health questionnaire–2 (Q#2)320.08
  Yes371 (82.4)187 (83.1)184 (81.8)
  No79 (17.6)38 (16.9)41 (18.2)
 Patient health questionnaire–2 (combined)320.08
  Positive screen (≥1 yes)105 (23.3)51 (22.7)54 (24.0)
  Negative screen345 (76.7)174 (77.3)171 (76.0)
Child’s health
 Children with special health care needs0.13
  No dependency/dependency only383 (85.1)197 (87.6)186 (82.7)
  1, 2, or 3 of dependency/service/function67 (14.9)28 (12.4)39 (17.3)
 Health rating0.18
  Excellent/very good/good436 (96.9)221 (98.2)215 (95.6)
  Fair/poor14 (3.1)4 (1.8)10 (4.4)
Neighborhood
 People are willing to help neighbors0.12
  Strongly agree/agree227 (50.4)111 (49.3)116 (51.6)
  Neither agree nor disagree129 (28.7)64 (28.4)65 (28.9)
  Strongly disagree/disagree94 (20.9)50 (22.2)44 (19.6)
 People in the neighborhood can be trusted0.16
  Strongly agree/agree244 (54.2)130 (57.8)114 (50.7)
  Neither agree nor disagree135 (30.0)64 (28.4)71 (31.6)
  Strongly disagree/disagree71 (15.8)31 (13.8)40 (17.8)
 Adults in neighborhood care about my child0.13
  Strongly agree/agree218 (48.4)105 (46.7)113 (50.2)
  Neither agree nor disagree150 (33.3)74 (32.9)76 (33.8)
  Strongly disagree/disagree82 (18.2)46 (20.4)36 (16.0)
Home environment
 Frequency of reading to child per week0.38
  Less than every day256 (56.9)109 (48.4)147 (65.3)
  Every day194 (43.1)116 (51.6)78 (34.7)
 No. of books child has of his/her own0.12
  <9 books166 (36.9)88 (39.1)78 (34.7)
  Too young61 (13.6)30 (13.3)31 (13.8)
  ≥10 books223 (49.6)107 (47.6)116 (51.6)
 How often do you and your partner/spouse disagree about how to raise your child(ren)?0.10
  Sometimes/often90 (20.0)43 (19.1)47 (20.9)
  Never/hardly ever306 (68.0)156 (69.3)150 (66.7)
  No partner/spouse54 (12.0)26 (11.6)28 (12.4)
Child care
 Someone else cares for child >10 h/wk0.09
  No368 (81.8)190 (84.4)178 (79.1)
  Yes82 (18.2)35 (15.6)47 (20.9)
Maternal social support
 Car0.12
  Own car402 (89.3)203 (90.2)199 (88.4)
  No car48 (10.7)22 (9.8)26 (11.6)
 How many people would be able to take care of your child for several hours if needed?0.09
  Nobody45 (10.0)22 (9.8)23 (10.2)
  One or more persons405 (90.0)203 (90.2)202 (89.8)
 Are there adults, excluding your spouse/partner, with whom you have regular talks?0.15
  No83 (18.4)49 (21.8)34 (15.1)
  Yes367 (81.6)176 (78.2)191 (84.9)
  • Data are presented as n (column %) unless otherwise indicated. Value >0.2 indicates a significant standardized difference. Q#1, question no. 1; Q#2, question no. 2.