TABLE 2

Characteristics of Children With Nonconfirmed Epilepsy Diagnoses (N = 309)

N%
Source of recorded epilepsy diagnosis
 Electroencephalography (EEG) laboratory9932
 Physician’s diagnostic conclusion5317
 Physician’s tentative diagnosis4715
 Coding error268
 Unknown source8427
Reason for evaluationa
One epileptic seizure only4113
  Meeting the new criteria for epilepsyb196
  Not meeting the new criteria for epilepsyb227
Other seizures or paroxysmal events21770
  Unspecific blank spells5518
  Febrile seizures4314
  Episodes suggestive of epileptic seizures3913
  Breath-holding attacks237
  Syncope227
  Acute symptomatic seizures (infection, head trauma, etc.)196
  Nonepileptic myoclonias (incl. sleep myoclonias)165
  Tics103
  Sleep disorders103
  Behavioral phenomena83
  Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures10
  Other events (gastro-esophageal reflux, migraine, etc)186
Other disorders or difficultiesc8427
  Developmental delay217
  ADHD/suspected ADHD186
  Attention difficulties (excl. ADHD)176
  Language disorders/difficulties176
  Autism/suspected autism145
  Behavioral disorders/difficulties93
  Sleep disorders/difficulties62
  Cerebral palsy62
  Other disorders/difficulties237
Other characteristics of nonconfirmed cases
 AEDs used5718
 Emergency medication prescribed6521
  • ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  • a Numbers add up to more than 309 because some children were evaluated for several different reasons.

  • b 1 unprovoked epileptic seizure and >60% probability of recurrent epileptic seizures or having a defined epilepsy syndrome.

  • c “Disorders” represent diagnosed conditions whereas “difficulties” represent clinically significant problems.