TABLE 1

Original Sample Characteristics Before Propensity Score Matching

CharacteristicTotal (N = 922)Usual Care (n = 697)Intervention (n = 225)Standardized Differences
Child characteristics
 Sex0.03
  Male440 (47.7)330 (47.4)110 (48.9)
  Female482 (52.3)367 (52.6)115 (51.1)
 Race/ethnicity0.82
  Non-Hispanic white369 (40.0)332 (47.6)37 (16.4)
  African American84 (9.1)61 (8.8)23 (10.2)
  Hispanic324 (35.1)188 (26.9)136 (60.4)
  Other145 (15.8)116 (16.7)29 (12.9)
 Median age at enrollment, y0.02
  Median (quartile 1, quartile 3)1.6 (0.4, 3.8)1.6 (0.6, 3.7)1.3 (0.1, 3.8)
Family characteristics
 Respondent age, y0.19
  15–34680 (62.9)424 (60.8)156 (69.3)
  ≥35342 (37.1)272 (39.2)69 (30.7)
 Siblings0.32
  Only child321 (34.9)268 (38.5)53 (23.6)
  Any siblings601 (65.1)429 (61.5)172 (76.4)
 Education0.59
  Did not complete/currently high school/high school diploma323 (35.0)197 (28.3)126 (56.0)
  Beyond high school599 (65.0)500 (71.8)99 (44.0)
 Insurance1.05
  Medicaid/self-pay413 (44.8)234 (33.6)179 (79.6)
  Private509 (55.2)463 (66.4)46 (20.4)
 Income, $0.66
  <20 000225 (24.4)121 (17.3)104 (46.2)
  ≥20 000697 (75.6)576 (82.6)121 (53.8)
 Living situation0.51
  Living in place he or she owns396 (43.0)340 (48.8)56 (24.9)
  Not living in place he or she rents526 (57.0)357 (51.2)169 (75.1)
Mother’s health
 Health rating0.33
  Excellent/very good/good848 (92.0)658 (94.4)190 (84.4)
  Fair/poor74 (8.0)39 (5.6)35 (15.6)
 Prenatal care0.20
  Yes, all of the time754 (81.8)583 (83.7)171 (76.0)
  All other responses168 (18.2)114 (16.3)54 (24.0)
 Patient health questionnaire–2 (Q#1)320.30
  Yes73 (7.9)40 (5.7)33 (14.7)
  No849 (92.1)657 (94.3)192 (85.3)
 Patient health questionnaire–2 (Q#2)320.26
  Yes106 (11.5)65 (9.3)41 (18.2)
  No816 (88.5)632 (90.7)184 (81.8)
 Patient health questionnaire–2 (combined)320.31
  Positive screen (≥1 yes)139 (15.1)85 (12.2)54 (24.0)
  Negative screen783 (84.9)612 (87.8)171 (76.0)
Child’s health
 Children with special health care needs0.17
  No dependency/dependency only805 (87.3)619 (88.8)186 (82.7)
  1, 2, or 3 of dependency/service/function117 (12.7)78 (11.2)39 (17.3)
 Health rating0.18
  Excellent/very good/good902 (97.8)687 (98.6)215 (95.6)
  Fair/poor20 (2.2)10 (1.4)10 (4.4)
Neighborhood
 People are willing to help neighbors0.21
  Strongly agree/agree526 (57.1)410 (58.9)116 (51.6)
  Neither agree nor disagree266 (28.8)201 (28.8)65 (28.8)
  Strongly disagree/disagree133 (14.1)56 (12.3)44 (19.7)
 People in the neighborhood can be trusted0.24
  Strongly agree/agree512 (55.5)399 (57.2)113 (50.2)
  Neither agree nor disagree323 (35.0)247 (35.5)76 (33.8)
  Strongly disagree/disagree87 (9.5)51 (7.3)36 (16.0)
 Adults in neighborhood care about my child0.28
  Strongly agree/agree512 (55.5)399 (57.2)113 (50.2)
  Neither agree nor disagree323 (35.0)247 (35.5)76 (33.8)
  Strongly disagree/disagree109 (11.8)69 (9.8)36 (16.0)
Home environment
 Frequency of reading to child per week0.38
  Less than every day473 (51.3)326 (46.8)147 (65.3)
  Every day449 (48.7)371 (53.2)78 (34.7)
 No. of books child has of his or her own0.35
  <9 books223 (24.23)145 (20.8)78 (34.7)
  Too young113 (12.3)82 (11.8)31 (13.8)
  ≥10 books586 (63.5)470 (67.4)116 (51.6)
 How often do you and your partner/spouse disagree about how to raise your child(ren)?0.32
  Sometimes/often273 (29.7)226 (32.4)47 (20.9)
  Never/hardly ever579 (62.8)429 (61.5)150 (66.7)
  No partner/spouse70 (7.6)42 (6.0)28 (12.4)
Child care
 Someone else cares for child >10 h/wk0.32
  No633 (68.7)455 (65.3)178 (79.1)
  Yes289 (31.3)242 (34.8)47 (20.9)
Maternal social support
 Car0.25
  Own car863 (93.6)664 (95.3)199 (88.4)
  No car59 (6.4)33 (4.8)26 (11.6)
 How many people would be able to take care of your child for several hours if needed?0.28
  Nobody47 (5.1)23 (3.4)23 (10.2)
  One or more persons875 (97.9)674 (96.6)202 (89.8)
 Are there adults, excluding your spouse/partner, with whom you have regular talks?0.23
  No90 (9.7)55 (8.0)35 (15.6)
  Yes832 (90.3)642 (92.1)190 (84.4)
  • Data are presented as n (column %) unless otherwise indicated. Values >0.2 indicate a significant standardized difference. Q#1, question no. 1; Q#2, question no. 2.