TABLE 1

Descriptive Characteristics of the Participants and Study Outcomes for Usual Care and Intervention Services, Pre- and Postintervention

Participant CharacteristicsUsual Care AdmissionsaIntervention Admissionsb
Pre (n = 70)Post (n = 76)Pre (n = 74)Post (n = 78)
Child
 Female child, % (n)46 (32)57.9 (44)50 (37)44 (34)
 Child age, mean (SD), y6.0 (5.7)5.7 (5.3)5.6 (5.6)5.0 (5.2)
 Child health status, % (n)
  Good to excellent86 (60)87 (66)85 (63)87 (68)
Parent
 Mother, % (n)81 (57)83 (63)88 (65)82 (64)
 White, non-Hispanic, % (n)84 (59)89 (68)84 (62)91 (71)
 Parent education, % (n)
  High school or less21 (15)8 (6)15 (11)26 (20)
  Some college31 (22)38 (29)39 (29)27 (21)
  Bachelor's degree or more46 (32)54 (41)46 (34)47 (37)
 Parent age, mean (SD), y35.0 (7.6)35.4 (6.7)34.6 (7.9)33.9 (6.9)
Length of stay, % (n)
 1 d46 (32)43 (33)34 (25)40 (31)
 2–3 d31 (22)33 (25)45 (33)38 (30)
 4–7 d4 (3)16 (12)18 (13)14 (11)
 >1 wk19 (13)8 (6)4 (3)8 (6)
FCR length, mean (SD), min10.2 (4.6)10.4 (3.4)9.9 (3.6)11.2 (4.6)
Checklist elements
 Total checklist elements performed, mean (SD)4.6 (1.0)4.9 (1.0)4.3 (1.0)5.9 (1.2)
 Nurse present, mean % (SD)c86 (29.8)88 (27.7)88 (23.8)88 (26.5)
 Introductions made, mean % (SD)29 (41.6)39 (41.1)21 (34.1)47 (42.9)
 Assessment provided, mean % (SD)58 (42.5)64 (40.5)48 (40.9)69 (41.9)
 Plan summarized, mean % (SD)97 (11.5)100 (2.8)96 (18.2)98 (8.6)
 Family was asked for questions, mean % (SD)71 (37.2)73 (36.2)67 (37.9)88 (26.1)
 Health care team was asked for questions, mean % (SD)24 (35.2)28 (35.4)23 (33.8)59 (41.3)
 Discharge goals discussed, mean % (SD)82 (26.9)85 (24.8)76 (33.8)83 (31.1)
 Orders were read back, mean % (SD)9 (20.9)17 (29.7)7 (20.1)52 (42.8)
Family engagementd
 Relationship building, mean (SD)43.7 (31.1)42.6 (18.7)36.0 (22.5)41.6 (24.1)
 Information giving, mean (SD)32.1 (34.4)23.4 (19.2)33.1 (28.8)28.3 (23.6)
 Information gathering, mean (SD)3.3 (3.3)3.0 (2.5)3.1 (3.2)3.3 (3.6)
 Decision-making, mean (SD)3.2 (3.0)4.0 (3.2)2.9 (2.2)4.4 (4.2)
Parent perceptions of safety climatee
 Overall safety, mean (SD)4.1 (0.7)4.1 (0.7)4.2 (0.8)4.1 (0.7)
 Staff communication openness, mean (SD)3.9 (0.7)3.9 (0.7)4.0 (0.6)4.0 (0.8)
 Family communication openness, mean (SD)4.5 (0.6)4.5 (0.6)4.5 (0.6)4.6 (0.6)
 Handoffs and transitions, mean (SD)3.9 (0.8)3.9 (0.9)4.0 (0.9)4.0 (1.0)
  • Values may not add to 100% due to rounding.

  • a Includes admissions to general pediatrics 1 (hospitalist) and pulmonary services.

  • b Includes admissions to general pediatrics 2 (hospitalist) and hematology/oncology services.

  • c For each checklist element, the mean and SD of the average percent of rounds during which the element was performed during a patient’s stay.

  • d Mean and SD of the number of utterances or decision-making events that families engaged in during FCRs.

  • e Mean and SD of parents’ safety climate domain scores, in which all of the domains’ elements were rated on a 5-point scale (1, strongly disagree to 5, strongly agree) with higher scores indicating more favorable perceptions.