TABLE 1

Participant Characteristics

Incentive (n = 18)Control (n = 18)P
Age, mean (SD)24.1 (4.7)23.0 (4.6).49
Education, mean (SD), y12.2 (1.5)11.3 (1.6).15
Employed, n (%)4 (22)5 (28).70
US born, n (%)6 (33)7 (39).73
Acculturation to US, mean (SD)a0.1 (0.9)0.2 (1.4).57
Prepregnancy BMI, mean (SD)28.6 (7.3)29.2 (6.2).43
Postpartum depression, mean (SD)b3.3 (4.5)4.6 (4.4).31
Smoking history last pregnancy, n (%)3 (17)2 (11).63
Breastfeeding self-efficacy, mean (SD)c173 (20)161 (25).07
Breastfed before, n (%)9/18 (50)8/17 (47).86
Mother breastfed, n (%)11/18 (61)7/17 (41).24
Primiparous, n (%)7/18 (39)8/18 (44).74
Infant birth weight, mean (SD), g3110.3 (712.3)3236.9 (885.9).64
  • a Modified version of the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II (possible highest score of 3 for being a strong American orientation; reliability: α = .86–.88; intercorrelation: r = 0.89).56,57

  • b Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (possible highest score of 30; reliability: α = .91; convergent validity with the Beck Depression Inventory: ρ = 0.85, P < .001).58,59

  • c Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (possible highest score of 195; reliability: α = .96; validity: α = .94).24