TABLE 1

Infant, Maternal, and Family Characteristics at Baseline

CharacteristicAll (N = 802)Control Group (n = 209)FAB Group (n = 205)Sleep Group (n = 192)Combination Group (n = 196)
Maternal age at child’s birth, y
 Mean ± SD31.6 ± 5.231.5 ± 5.032.1 ± 5.331.6 ± 5.231.0 ± 5.4
 <2592 (11.5)23 (11.0)19 (9.3)22 (11.5)28 (14.4)
 25–33442 (55.2)121 (57.9)109 (53.2)103 (53.7)109 (55.9)
 34–43262 (32.7)64 (30.6)75 (36.6)65 (33.9)58 (29.7)
 ≥445 (0.6)1 (0.5)2 (1.0)2 (1.0)0
 Missing10001
Maternal ethnicity
 New Zealand European682 (85.7)177 (84.7)176 (86.3)161 (83.8)168 (85.7)
 Māori46 (5.7)15 (7.2)9 (4.4)8 (4.2)14 (7.1)
 Pacific13 (1.6)2 (1.0)3 (1.5)4 (2.1)4 (2.0)
 Asian39 (4.9)9 (4.3)9 (4.4)14 (7.3)7 (3.6)
 MELAA8 (1.0)2 (1.0)2 (1.0)2 (1.0)2 (1.0)
 Other13 (1.6)4 (1.9)5 (2.5)3 (1.6)1 (0.5)
 Missing10100
Maternal parity (not including study child)
 Primiparous382 (47.6)99 (47.4)96 (46.8)90 (46.9)97 (49.5)
 2–3 children381 (47.5)95 (45.5)100 (48.8)94 (49.0)92 (46.9)
 ≥4 children39 (4.9)15 (7.2)9 (4.4)8 (4.2)7 (3.6)
Maternal educationa
 Year 11 or below62 (7.8)14 (6.8)17 (8.4)18 (9.4)13 (6.7)
 Year 12 or 13131 (16.5)41 (19.9)23 (11.3)30 (15.6)37 (19.2)
 Postsecondary qualification116 (14.6)29 (14.1)27 (13.3)29 (15.1)31 (16.1)
 University degree or higher485 (61.1)122 (59.2)136 (67.0)115 (59.9)112 (58.0)
Missing83203
Household deprivationb
 1–3 (low)276 (34.8)74 (35.9)70 (34.5)65 (33.9)67 (34.7)
 4–7350 (44.1)93 (45.2)86 (42.4)84 (43.8)87 (45.1)
 8–10 (high)168 (21.2)39 (18.9)47 (23.2)43 (22.4)39 (20.2)
 Missing83203
Household income, NZ$
 <20 00025 (3.4)6 (3.1)5 (2.7)5 (2.9)9 (5.1)
 20 000–40 00087 (12.0)29 (15.1)20 (10.6)17 (9.8)21 (12.0)
 40 000–70 000210 (28.9)65 (33.9)43 (22.9)50 (28.9)52 (29.7)
 ≥70 000406 (55.8)92 (47.9)120 (63.8)101 (58.4)93 (53.1)
 Missing7417171921
Maternal prepregnancy BMI 25.1 ± 5.025.2 ± 5.025.4 ± 5.724.8 ± 4.424.9 ± 4.8
Maternal prepregnancy weight statusc
 Underweight20 (2.5)9 (4.4)3 (1.5)4 (2.1)4 (2.1)
 Normal weight448 (56.1)113 (54.6)114 (55.6)104 (54.5)117 (59.7)
 Overweight226 (28.3)57 (27.5)56 (27.3)61 (31.9)52 (26.5)
 Obese105 (13.1)28 (13.5)32 (15.6)22 (11.6)23 (11.7)
Missing32010
Infant sex
 Female391 (48.8)111 (53.1)98 (47.8)82 (42.7)100 (51.0)
 Male411 (51.3)98 (46.9)107 (52.2)110 (57.3)96 (49.0)
Infant birth weight, g
 Mean ± SD3551 ± 4803522 ± 4843561 ± 4823595 ± 4613529 ± 493
Missing72212
  • Data are presented as mean ± SD or n (%). MELAA = Middle Eastern, Latin American or African.

  • a Secondary schooling in New Zealand is from year 9 to year 13 inclusive; postsecondary qualifications refer to all tertiary qualifications that are not university based.

  • b Uses the New Zealand Index of Deprivation 2013, which combines 9 variables from the 2013 census and provides a deprivation score for each meshblock (ie, geographical units defined by Statistics New Zealand containing ∼81 people). The score reflects the extent of material and social deprivation and is used to construct deciles from 1 to 10.

  • c Underweight is a BMI <18.5, normal weight is a BMI of 18.5 to <25.0, overweight is a BMI of 25.0 to <30.0, and obese is a BMI ≥30.