TABLE 2

Compendium of Clinical Manifestations/Signs Reported in the Literature to Be Associated With CT

Ocular signs96,107,108,110
 1. Amblyopia*
 2. Cataract*
 3. Chorioretinitis* (bilateral or unilateral, posterior pole macular lesions or peripheral lesions; yellowish-white cotton-like patches in the fundus; solitary or small clusters; lesions of various ages; sharp borders in older lesions)
 4. Chorioretinal scars* (macular, peripheral, juxtapapillary)
 5. Chorioretinal edema
 6. Choroidal neovascular membranes (vision-threatening)
 7. Detachment of posterior hyaloid membrane
 8. Iritis (if associated with posterior pole lesions)
 9. Leukocoria
 10. Macular edema
 11. Microphthalmia-microcornea
 12. Nystagmus*
 13. Necrotizing retinitis
 14. Optic nerve atrophy*
 15. Papilledema
 16. Retinal detachment
 17. Strabismus* (convergent or divergent)
 18. Visual impairment*
 19. Vitritis (active; exudation of cells in overlying vitreous)
CNS signs96
 1. Brain masses
 2. CSF pleocytosis, elevated protein, eosinophilia, hypoglycorrhachia*
 3. Delay in developmental milestones* (psychomotor retardation)
 4. Hypotonia* (or abnormal muscle tone)
 5. Intracranial calcifications* (1–3 mm; scattered in white matter, in periventricular areas of occipitoparietal and temporal regions, curvilinear streaks in basal ganglia, nodular calcifications, linear calcifications)
 6. Macrocephaly or microcephaly*
 7. Obstructive hydrocephalus*
 8. Palsies*
 9. SNHL*
 10. Seizures*
 11. Spasticity*
 12. Wide spectrum of manifestations from massive acute encephalopathy to subtle neurologic signs
Additional signs96
 1. Anemia*
 2. Disseminated intravascular coagulation
 3. Hepatitis*
 4. Hepatic calcifications*
 5. Hepatomegaly or hepatosplenomegaly*
 6. Jaundice
 7. Lymphadenopathy
 8. Myocarditis*
 9. Pneumonitis
 10. Preterm birth* (associated with certain non–type II T gondii strains in the United States36)
 11. Rash* (petechial, blueberry muffin rash, purpura, maculopapular)
 12. Sepsis-like illness* (disseminated disease with multiple organ failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation) (rare)
 13. Splenomegaly*
 14. Temperature instability (hypothermia or hyperthermia/fever)
 15. Thrombocytopenia*
Fetal ultrasonographic findings121
 1. Ascites*
 2. Echogenic bowel*
 3. Fetal demise*
 4. Hydrocephalus*
 5. Hydrops fetalis
 6. Hepatosplenomegaly*
 7. Intracranial densities/calcifications*
 8. Intrahepatic densities/calcifications*
 9. Intrauterine growth retardation*
 10. Pericardial and/or pleural effusions
 11. Placenta hyperdensities, placenta increased thickness*
  • Clinical manifestations/signs are listed alphabetically. Signs considered to be encountered more frequently according to the PAMF-TSL are indicated by an asterisk (*). Accurate estimates of the frequency of all of these clinical signs are not available.