TABLE 1

Characteristics of the Best-Supported Programs for Disruptive Behavior Disorders and ADHD

ProgramAgesFormal Psychoeducation for Parents?Real-Time Observed Parent–Child Interactions?Special CharacteristicsDurationEvidence Suggesting Effective for ADHD? (Effect Size)Evidence Suggesting Effective for Disruptive Behavior Disorders? (Effect Size)
New Forest2830–77 moYesYesParent–child tasks are specifically intended to require attention5 weekly sessionsYes (very large, 1.9)Yes (moderate, 0.7)
Occurs in the home
Explicit attention to parental depression
Incredible Years Parent Training and Child Training29,30 (incredibleyearsseries.org)24 mo–8 yYesNoSeparate parent and child groups20 weekly 2-h sessionsYesYes
Parental training uses video vignettes for discussion
Child training includes circle time learning and coached free play
Triple P31 (triplep.org)Birth–12 yYes (primary)YesMultiple levels of interventionPrimary care, four 15-min sessionsNoYes
Primarily training parents with some opportunities to observe parent–child interactionsStandard treatment is 10 sessions
Handouts and homework supplement the treatment
PCIT32 (pcit.org)24 mo–7 yYes, minimalYesThrough a 1-way mirror, therapist coaches parent during in vivo interactions with childDuration depends on parental skill developmentModestYes
Homework requires parent child interactions
Progress through therapy determined by parents' skill development
Helping the Noncomplaint Child263–8 yYesYesInvolves 2 phases: (1) differential attention; (2) compliance training using demonstration, role plays, and in-office and at home practice8–10 average (depends on demonstrated progress)Yes (1.24 parent report; .23 [NS] teacher report)Yes