TABLE 2

OLS, Fixed Effects, and IV Multivariable Models Examining the Association of Childcare Attendance and BMI Z Scores: Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Birth Cohort

OLS Multivariable Regression AnalysisaFixed Effects Model Analysisa,bFirst Stage IV AnalysisIV Analysisa
β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)
Childcare0.08 (0.03)*0.02 (0.02)1.12 (0.76)
Close relative (first stage IV analysis)c0.04 (0.01)
Age, mo0.01 (0.01)0.003 (0.003)0.02 (0.01)−0.01 (0.02)
Boys0.07 (0.03)*0.09 (0.03)0.01 (0.01)0.05 (0.03)
SES−0.06 (0.01)−0.07 (0.02)*0.06 (0.01)−0.13 (0.05)*
Race
 African-American0.12 (0.05)*0.05 (0.05)0.14 (0.03)−0.02 (0.12)
 Hispanic0.19 (0.04)*0.12 (0.04)*0.03 (0.02)0.16 (0.05)*
 Asian−0.18 (0.05)*−0.15 (0.04)*−0.02 (0.02)−0.15 (0.06)*
 Other0.19 (0.05)*0.14 (0.05)*0.03 (0.02)0.16 (0.06)*
Maternal age, y0.00 (0.003)0.000 (0.003)−0.001 (0.001)0.001 (0.003)
Unsafe neighborhood0.04 (0.06)−0.02 (0.05)−0.06 (0.03)*0.10 (0.08)
Two-parent household−0.04 (0.04)−0.01 (0.05)−0.17 (0.02)*0.13 (0.14)
Maternal weight, kg0.002 (0.00)*0.002 (0.00)0.00 (0.00)0.002 (0.001)*
  • a Confounders in all models included child age, race/ethnicity, sex, maternal age, maternal weight (in kg), household structure, family SES, and neighborhood safety.

  • b Model also controlled for other time varying covariates: employment status, change in residence, household structure, and SES for each wave of data.

  • c Close relative variable only included in IV analysis.

  • * P < .05.