TABLE 2

Behavioral Outcome z-Scores in Children With CM or SMA Compared With CC Children at 12 and 24-month Follow-up and Over All Study Visits

CBCL Preschool Scores and OutcomesCM (n = 100)SMA (n = 98)CC (n = 123)CM – CCSMA – CC
Difference, Mean (SE)PDifference, Mean (SE)P
z-Score at 12 mo, mean (SE)
 Internalizing problems−0.10 (0.11)0.23 (0.10)−0.27 (0.10)0.16 (0.15).270.49 (0.14).001
 Externalizing problems0.09 (0.11)0.19 (0.11)−0.30 (0.10)0.39 (0.15).0090.49 (0.15).001
 Total problems0.01 (0.11)0.24 (0.11)−0.27 (0.10)0.28 (0.15).070.51 (0.15)<.001
z-Score at 24 mo, mean (SE)
 Internalizing problems−0.14 (0.11)−0.18 (0.11)−0.49 (0.11)0.35 (0.16).030.31 (0.16).05
 Externalizing problems0.04 (0.12)−0.17 (0.12)−0.51 (0.11)0.55 (0.17).0010.33 (0.16).04
 Total problems−0.05 (0.12)−0.16 (0.12)−0.51 (0.11)0.46 (0.17).0060.35 (0.16).04
z-Score for all visits, mean (SE)a
 Internalizing problems0.04 (0.07)0.12 (0.06)−0.20 (0.06)0.24 (0.09).0100.31 (0.09)<.001
 Externalizing problems0.12 (0.07)0.01 (0.07)−0.28 (0.07)0.40 (0.10)<.0010.29 (0.10).003
 Total problems0.14 (0.07)0.12 (0.07)−0.22 (0.06)0.36 (0.10)<.0010.34 (0.09)<.001
  • Mean z-score differences at 12 and 24 months for CM minus CC and SMA minus CC were adjusted for nutrition status (weight-for-age and height-for-age), preschool education, and socioeconomic status; mean z-score differences using all visits for CM minus CC and SMA minus CC were adjusted for time, nutrition status, preschool education, and socioeconomic status. Age- and sex-adjusted CBCL z-scores were computed using CC children as the reference population.

  • a Mixed linear model estimates of mean z-scores at enrollment and at the 6-, 12-, and 24-month visits. Some children had different caretakers at different visits; a random effect for caretaker allowed scores within a child from the same caretaker to be more highly correlated than scores from different caretakers.