CBCL Preschool Scores and Outcomes | CM (n = 100) | SMA (n = 98) | CC (n = 123) | CM – CC | SMA – CC | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Difference, Mean (SE) | P | Difference, Mean (SE) | P | ||||

z-Score at 12 mo, mean (SE) | |||||||

Internalizing problems | −0.10 (0.11) | 0.23 (0.10) | −0.27 (0.10) | 0.16 (0.15) | .27 | 0.49 (0.14) | .001 |

Externalizing problems | 0.09 (0.11) | 0.19 (0.11) | −0.30 (0.10) | 0.39 (0.15) | .009 | 0.49 (0.15) | .001 |

Total problems | 0.01 (0.11) | 0.24 (0.11) | −0.27 (0.10) | 0.28 (0.15) | .07 | 0.51 (0.15) | <.001 |

z-Score at 24 mo, mean (SE) | |||||||

Internalizing problems | −0.14 (0.11) | −0.18 (0.11) | −0.49 (0.11) | 0.35 (0.16) | .03 | 0.31 (0.16) | .05 |

Externalizing problems | 0.04 (0.12) | −0.17 (0.12) | −0.51 (0.11) | 0.55 (0.17) | .001 | 0.33 (0.16) | .04 |

Total problems | −0.05 (0.12) | −0.16 (0.12) | −0.51 (0.11) | 0.46 (0.17) | .006 | 0.35 (0.16) | .04 |

z-Score for all visits, mean (SE)^{a} | |||||||

Internalizing problems | 0.04 (0.07) | 0.12 (0.06) | −0.20 (0.06) | 0.24 (0.09) | .010 | 0.31 (0.09) | <.001 |

Externalizing problems | 0.12 (0.07) | 0.01 (0.07) | −0.28 (0.07) | 0.40 (0.10) | <.001 | 0.29 (0.10) | .003 |

Total problems | 0.14 (0.07) | 0.12 (0.07) | −0.22 (0.06) | 0.36 (0.10) | <.001 | 0.34 (0.09) | <.001 |

Mean z-score differences at 12 and 24 months for CM minus CC and SMA minus CC were adjusted for nutrition status (weight-for-age and height-for-age), preschool education, and socioeconomic status; mean z-score differences using all visits for CM minus CC and SMA minus CC were adjusted for time, nutrition status, preschool education, and socioeconomic status. Age- and sex-adjusted CBCL z-scores were computed using CC children as the reference population.

↵a Mixed linear model estimates of mean z-scores at enrollment and at the 6-, 12-, and 24-month visits. Some children had different caretakers at different visits; a random effect for caretaker allowed scores within a child from the same caretaker to be more highly correlated than scores from different caretakers.