TABLE 3

Behavioral Outcome Subscale z-Scores in Children With CM or SMA Compared With CC Children at 12-Month Follow-up and Over All Study Visits

CBCL Preschool Scores and OutcomesCM (n = 100)SMA (n = 98)CC (n = 123)CM – CCSMA – CC
Difference, Mean (SE)PDifference, Mean (SE)P
z-Score at 12 mo, mean (SE)
 Internalizing problems
  Emotionally reactive−0.15 (0.11)0.21 (0.10)−0.13 (0.10)−0.02 (0.15).900.34 (0.14).02
  Anxious/depressed−0.21 (0.10)0.13 (0.10)−0.26 (0.09)0.05 (0.14).710.39 (0.14).005
  Somatic complaints0.12 (0.09)0.17 (0.09)−0.33 (0.09)0.45 (0.13).0010.50 (0.13)<.001
  Withdrawn0.00 (0.12)0.17 (0.12)−0.07 (0.11)0.07 (0.16).670.24 (0.16).14
 Externalizing problems
  Attention problems−0.08 (0.09)0.06 (0.09)−0.17 (0.08)0.09 (0.13).500.23 (0.13).08
  Aggressive behavior0.13 (0.11)0.20 (0.11)−0.30 (0.10)0.43 (0.15).0050.50 (0.15).001
z-Score for all visits, mean (SE)a
 Internalizing problems
  Emotionally reactive0.01 (0.07)0.12 (0.06)−0.12 (0.06)0.13 (0.09).160.24 (0.09).005
  Anxious/depressed−0.05 (0.06)0.04 (0.06)−0.19 (0.06)0.13 (0.09).120.23 (0.08).006
  Somatic complaints0.09 (0.06)0.07 (0.06)−0.21 (0.06)0.30 (0.09).0010.28 (0.08).001
  Withdrawn0.09 (0.07)0.11 (0.07)−0.07 (0.06)0.16 (0.10).090.18 (0.09).05
 Externalizing problems
  Attention problems−0.08 (0.06)−0.06 (0.05)−0.20 (0.05)0.12 (0.08).130.14 (0.07).05
  Aggressive behavior0.17 (0.08)0.04 (0.07)−0.26 (0.07)0.43 (0.10)<.0010.29 (0.10).002
  • Mean z-score differences at 12 months for CM minus CC and SMA minus CC were adjusted for nutrition status (weight-for-age and height-for-age), preschool education, and socioeconomic status; mean z-score differences using all visits for CM minus CC and SMA minus CC were adjusted for time, nutrition status, preschool education, and socioeconomic status. Age- and sex-adjusted CBCL subscale z-scores were computed using CC children as the reference population.

  • a Mixed linear model estimates of mean z-scores at enrollment and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month visits. Some children had different caretakers at different visits; a random effect for caretaker allowed scores within a child from the same caretaker to be more highly correlated than scores from different caretakers.