TABLE 2

Logistic Regression Models Assessing Belief That e-Cigarettes, Cigars, and Smokeless Tobacco Are Less Harmful Than Cigarettes

VariableElectronic CigarettesCigars, Cigarillos, or Little CigarsChewing Tobacco, Snuff, Dip, or Snus
OR (95% CI)aAverage Marginal Effect: Product Is Less HarmfulbOR (95% CI)aAverage Marginal Effect: Product Is Less HarmfulbOR (95% CI)aAverage Marginal Effect: Product Is Less Harmfulb
Probability, % (95% CI)PProbability, % (95% CI)PProbability, % (95% CI)P
Use of cigarettes
 NoReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes0.72 (0.63 to 0.82)−5.9 (−8.2 to −3.6)<.0010.52 (0.43 to 0.64)−11.4 (−14.7 to −8.1)<.0010.66 (0.57 to 0.78)−6.1 (−8.5 to −3.8)<.001
Use of listed product
 NoReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes1.51 (1.24 to 1.85)7.4 (3.5 to 10.9)<.0011.55 (1.26 to 1.91)7.7 (4.1 to 11.2)<.0014.09 (3.42 to 4.90)21.0 (18.4 to 23.5)<.001
Belief that will use listed product soon
 Definitely yes0.91 (0.58 to 1.44)−1.7 (−10.3 to 6.8).6881.71 (1.23 to 2.39)10.3 (3.5 to 17.0).003
 Probably yes1.48 (1.15 to 1.91)6.8 (2.7 to 11.0).0011.45 (1.13 to 1.86)6.9 (2.2 to 11.6).004
 Probably no1.45 (1.26 to 1.67)6.5 (4.0 to 8.9)<.0011.21 (1.03 to 1.42)3.4 (0.5 to 6.2).021
 Definitely noReferenceReference
Would use listed product if offered
 Definitely yes4.36 (2.83 to 6.73)23.1 (18.1 to 28.1)<.0012.32 (1.65 to 3.25)16.0 (8.8 to 23.1)<.001
 Probably yes2.79 (2.23 to 3.48)18.0 (14.6 to 21.5)<.0012.26 (1.81 to 2.81)15.4 (11.0 to 19.8)<.001
 Probably no1.99 (1.68 to 2.37)13.1 (9.9 to 16.3)<.0011.89 (1.56 to 2.30)11.6 (7.9 to 15.4)<.001
 Definitely noReferenceReference
Gender
 FemaleReferenceReferenceReference
 Male1.53 (1.37 to 1.70)7.6 (5.7 to 9.5)<.0011.22 (1.06 to 1.41)3.5 (1.2 to 5.9).0031.31 (1.15 to 1.49)4.0 (2.1 to 5.9)<.001
Age
 <15 yReferenceReferenceReference
 ≥15 y0.92 (0.82 to 1.02)−1.5 (−3.4 to 0.3).111.04 (0.90 to 1.21)0.7 (−1.9 to 3.3).591.02 (0.86 to 1.21)0.3 (−2.2 to 2.8).83
Ethnicity
 WhiteReferenceReferenceReference
 Black0.76 (0.62 to 0.94)−4.8 (−8.6 to −1.0).0141.15 (0.97 to 1.35)2.5 (−0.5 to 5.6).110.72 (0.53 to 0.96)−4.8 (−8.8 to −0.8).018
 Hispanic0.60 (0.52 to 0.68)−9.5 (−12.0 to −6.9)<.0010.71 (0.61 to 0.82)−5.8 (−8.2 to −3.4)<.0010.74 (0.60 to 0.92)−4.3 (−7.4 to −1.2).007
 Other or missing0.80 (0.67 to 0.95)−3.9 (−7.0 to −0.8).0130.66 (0.51 to 0.86)−6.8 (−10.7 to −3.0).0010.82 (0.67 to 1.01)−2.9 (−5.8 to 0.0).050
Household member uses listed product
 NoReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes1.84 (1.60 to 2.11)10.8 (8.5 to 13.1)<.0011.70 (1.43 to 2.02)9.3 (6.3 to 12.3)<.0011.79 (1.47 to 2.18)8.7 (5.9 to 11.4)<.001
  • —, not included in multivariate regression models.

  • a Odds ratios (ORs) displayed represent estimates from the weighted logistic model in which all listed covariates are included, with 95% CIs calculated by Taylor series linearization to account for the complex survey design. ORs presented are for respondents perceiving the listed product as less harmful than cigarettes among respondents who provided an assessment.

  • b Average marginal effects estimate the average pp change by altering listed covariates among the study population, estimating the likelihood that a respondent perceived the product to be less harmful than conventional cigarettes.