TABLE 1

Baseline Characteristics of Study Subjects

CharacteristicCase Subjects (n = 92)Control Subjects (n = 183)P
Male sex49 (53)113 (62).19
Birth weight, g.72
 >250014 (15)24 (13)
 1501–250018 (20)44 (24)
 1000–150028 (30)55 (30)
 <100032 (35)60 (33)
Antenatal steroids (full course)64 (70)127 (69).94
Chorioamnionitis19 (21)48 (26).27
IUGR14 (15)30 (16).80
Maternal smoking25 (27)43 (23).26
Mode of delivery.86
 Vaginal49 (53)92 (50)
 Elective cesarean delivery7 (8)17 (9)
 Emergency cesarean delivery36 (39)73 (40)
5-min Apgar score <712 (13)26 (14).66
Cardiac anomaly28 (30)48 (26).42
 PDA only4 (4)12 (15)
Necrotizing enterocolitis20 (22)36 (20).69
Retinopathy of prematurity15 (16)20 (11).21
Death before discharge3 (3)13 (7).26
  • Data are presented as n (%). P values represent conditional logistic regression. IUGR, intrauterine growth retardation; PDA, patent ductus arteriosus.