TABLE 1

Demographic Characteristics of Study Children Tested for the Preschool CBCL at 12 Months

CharacteristicCM (n = 100)SMA (n = 98)CC (n = 123)Pa
Age in y, mean (SD)3.1 (0.8)2.8 (1.0)3.3 (0.9)<.001b
Sex, No. female (%)41 (41)42 (43)58 (47).63
Weight-for-age z-score, mean (SD)−1.3 (1.2)−1.5 (1.6)−0.9 (1.3).002c
Height-for-age z-score, mean (SD)−0.4 (1.3)−1.1 (1.4)−1.0 (1.3).002d
Socioeconomic status score, mean (SD)8.5 (2.4)9.5 (3.2)9.8 (3.2).002e
Home environment z-score, mean (SD)0.0 (1.0)0.0 (0.9)0.0 (1.0).88
Maternal education level, n (%)
 Primary 6 or lower45 (45)30 (31)41 (33).34
 Primary 722 (22)22 (22)28 (23)
 Secondary or higher30 (30)40 (41)45 (37)
 Not known3 (3)6 (6)9 (7)
Paternal education level, n (%)
 Primary 6 or lower22 (22)24 (24)17 (14).21
 Primary 717 (17)10 (10)27 (22)
 Secondary or higher41 (41)44 (45)56 (45)
 Not known20 (20)20 (20)23 (19)
Child has preschool education, No. (%)15 (15)10 (10)39 (32)<.001c
  • a P values are based on one-way analysis of variance for continuous variables and Pearson's χ2 test for categorical variables. Tukey post-hoc test was used to compare pairs of groups for continuous measures; for child’s education, Pearson's χ2 test was used to compare pairs of groups with a Bonferroni adjustment.

  • b SMA group differs from CC group.

  • c SMA and CM groups differ from CC group.

  • d SMA group differs from CM group and CM differs from CC group.

  • e CM differs from CC group.