TABLE 3

Temporal Increase in NAS by Demographic Characteristics in Canada (Excluding Quebec) From 2005–2006 to 2015–2016

YearIncidence of NAS per 1000 Live BirthsOR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)aORb (95% CI)
SES quintile 1
 2004–2005 to 2008–20093.9111
 2009–2010 to 2011–20126.81.8 (1.6–1.9)2.9 (2.7–3.2)2.8 (2.6–3.0)
 2012–2013 to 2015–20169.42.4 (2.3–2.6)4.2 (4.0–4.5)4.0 (3.8–4.3)
SES quintiles 2–4
 2004–2005 to 2008–20091.5111
 2009–2010 to 2011–20122.51.7 (1.5–1.8)1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.2 (1.1–1.3)
 2012–2013 to 2015–20163.52.3 (2.2–2.5)1.7 (1.6–1.8)1.7 (1.6–1.8)
SES quintile 5
 2004–2005 to 2008–20091.2111
 2009–2010 to 2011–20122.01.7 (1.4–2.0)1.2 (1.1–1.4)1.2 (1.1–1.4)
 2012–2013 to 2015–20162.62.3 (1.9–2.7)1.7 (1.5–1.8)1.7 (1.5–1.9)
Urban
 2004–2005 to 2008–20092.1111
 2009–2010 to 2011–20123.51.6 (1.5–1.7)1.4 (1.3–1.5)1.4 (1.3–1.5)
 2012–2013 to 2015–20164.72.2 (2.1–2.3)2.0 (1.9–2.1)2.0 (1.9–2.1)
Rural
 2004–2005 to 2008–20091.711
 2009–2010 to 2011–20123.82.2 (1.8–2.6)1.7 (1.5–1.9)1.6 (1.4–1.8)
 2012–2013 to 2015–20165.33.1 (2.6–3.6)2.5 (2.3–2.8)2.4 (2.2–2.7)
Maternal age <25 y
 2004–2005 to 2008–20093.30111
 2009–2010 to 2011–20126.101.9 (1.7–2.1)2.2 (2.0–2.4)2.4 (2.2–2.7)
 2012–2013 to 2015–20168.402.6 (2.3–2.8)3.0 (2.8–3.3)3.4 (3.2–3.7)
Maternal age 25–34 y
 2004–2005 to 2008–20091.80111
 2009–2010 to 2011–20123.101.7 (1.6–1.9)1.4 (1.3–1.5)1.4 (1.3–1.5)
 2012–2013 to 2015–20164.402.4 (2.3–2.6)2.0 (1.9–2.1)2.0 (1.9–2.1)
Maternal age ≥35 y
 2004–2005 to 2008–20091.60111
 2009–2010 to 2011–20121.901.2 (1.0–1.4)1.0 (0.9–1.1)0.9 (0.8–1.0)
 2012–2013 to 2015–20163.001.9 (1.6–2.2)1.5 (1.4–1.7)1.4 (1.3–1.5)
  • ORs were calculated by using average values for other covariates.

  • a aOR adjusted for age, SES, and rural residence and their interactions.

  • b aOR adjusted also for parity, male fetus, chronic hypertension, and chronic diabetes. Missing values for parity (21%) in provinces that do not collect data were modeled as “missing.”