TABLE 2

Univariate and Multivariate Analysis of the Association of Mental Health Status and Nonadherence to ART Among Youth Ages 10–17 in Rwanda (n = 193)

OR95% CIOR95% CI
Depressive symptoms (self-report)
 Depressive symptoms1.02(0.99–1.03)1.02(0.99–1.03)
 Age1.03(0.90–1.18)
 Sex0.73(0.40–1.32)
Depressive symptoms (caregiver report)
 Depressive symptoms1.02(1.01–1.04)1.02(1.01–1.04)
 Age1.02(0.89–1.18)
 Sex0.74(0.40–1.35)
Mixed anxiety/depression (self-report)
 Mixed anxiety/depression1.68(0.92–3.07)0.57(0.20–1.60)
 Hopefulness0.97(0.37–2.56)
 Daily hardships1.09(0.93–1.26)
 HIV-related stigma1.29(1.11–1.48)
 Age1.08(0.90–1.29)
 Sex0.62(0.30–1.27)
Mixed anxiety/depression (caregiver report)
 Mixed anxiety/depression3.57(1.86–6.86)1.87(0.83–4.22)
 Hopefulness0.40(0.15–1.11)
 Daily hardships1.01(0.94–1.09)
 Harsh punishment2.25(0.32–15.6)
 Self-esteem0.91(0.41–2.02)
 Prosocial behavior0.69(0.32–1.49)
 Age1.04(0.90–1.22)
 Sex0.72(0.38–1.37)
Irritability (self-report)
 Irritability1.79(1.06–3.04)0.91(0.44–1.88)
 Daily hardships1.05(0.92–1.20)
 HIV-related stigma1.23(1.09–1.39)
 Age1.01(0.87–1.16)
 Sex0.64(0.34–1.21)
Irritability (caregiver report)
 Irritability1.97(1.22–3.18)1.07(0.56–2.05)
 Hopefulness0.33(0.12–88)
 Daily hardships1.02(0.95–1.10)
 Harsh punishment2.16(0.30–15.28)
 Caregiver depression1.07(0.56–2.05)
 Self-esteem0.93(0.42–2.06)
 Prosocial behaviors0.62(0.29–1.32)
 Age1.06(0.92–1.23)
 Sex0.74(0.39–1.40)
Conduct problems (self-report)
 Conduct problems1.79(1.10–2.90)1.47(0.87–2.49)
 Daily hardships1.01(0.90–1.15)
 HIV-related stigma1.22(1.09–1.36)
 Age1.01(0.88–1.17)
 Sex0.66(0.35–1.24)
Conduct problems (caregiver report)
 Conduct problems3.35(2.00–5.61)2.90(1.55–5.43)
 Hopefulness0.27(0.11–0.67)
 Prosocial behaviors1.02(0.48–2.18)
 Age1.03(0.90–1.20)
 Sex0.90(0.47–1.74)