TABLE 2

Secondary and Exploratory Outcomes of "Housing First" Compared With Treatment as Usual in Youth Aged 18 to 24 y

Treatment Effect
6 mo12 mo18 mo24 moOverall Treatment Group × Time Interactiona
OutcomesDifference or Ratio of Changes From Baseline (95% CI)bPDifference or Ratio of Changes From Baseline (95% CI)PDifference or Ratio of Changes From Baseline (95% CI)PDifference or Ratio of Changes From Baseline (95% CI)PP
EQ-5D−1.65 (–11.30 to 8.01).74−7.13 (–17.23 to 2.97).17−1.97 (−13.44 to 9.50).742.81 (−6.36 to 11.97).55.36
QOLI-20 total score9.30 (1.35 to 17.24).028.71 (–0.11 to 17.53).055.17 (–4.25 to 14.58).287.29 (–1.61 to 16.18).11.17
 Family1.40 (–0.79 to 3.60).210.79 (–1.71 to 3.28).531.38 (–1.20 to 3.95).291.85(–0.68 to 4.38).15.58
 Finances1.20 (–0.11 to 2.51).070.69 (–0.62 to 2.00).30−0.05 (–1.37 to 1.27).940.55(–0.65 to 1.75).37.41
 Leisure3.07 (0.37 to 5.77).033.27 (0.56 to 5.98).022.11 (–0.79 to 5.02).153.16 (0.48 to 5.83).02.10
 Living situation0.81 (–0.03 to 1.65).060.21 (–0.64 to 1.06).630.11 (–0.71 to 0.93).780.31 (–0.57 to 1.19).49.42
 Safety2.03 (–0.44 to 4.51).111.86 (–0.64 to 4.36).14−0.66 (–3.23 to 1.92).610.06 (–2.49 to 2.61).96.15
 Social0.81 (–0.94 to 2.56).361.12 (–0.57 to 2.82).190.73 (–1.07 to 2.54).420.98 (–0.63 to 2.59).23.71
 Overall quality of life−0.17 (–0.79 to 0.46).600.14 (–0.47 to 0.75).65−0.05 (–0.78 to 0.67).880.10 (–0.53 to 0.72).76.88
MCAS1.70 (–1.27 to 4.67).26−0.32 (–3.42 to 2.78).841.82 (–1.63 to 5.28).300.25 (–2.79 to 3.28).87.49
CIS0.54 (–0.96 to 2.04).48−0.29 (–1.90 to 1.33).730.25 (–1.33 to 1.84).750.49 (–0.99 to 1.98).51.84
RAS1.80 (–3.33 to 6.93).49.49
SF-12 Physical Health−1.04 (–5.27 to 3.19).631.46 (–2.83 to 5.74).50.51
SF-12 Mental Health−2.60 (–7.75 to 2.55).32−0.78 (–6.74 to 5.18).80.59
CSI0.3 (–4.00 to 4.59).890.25 (–4.44 to 4.95).922.05 (–2.43 to 6.54).37−0.05 (–5.10 to 5.00).98.84
GAIN-SPS1.18 (0.85 to 1.66).330.92 (0.60 to 1.41).711.06 (0.65 to 1.72).830.84 (0.51 to 1.38).49.55
Victim of violent robbery, physical, or sexual assault, %0.86 (0.35 to 2.12).740.75 (0.28 to 2.00).572.55 (0.87 to 7.46).091.40 (0.55 to 3.57).48.14
No. of ED visits, count0.65 (0.31 to 1.39).271.61 (0.78 to 3.32).201.46 (0.71 to 2.98).300.81 (0.39 to 1.70).58.16
Has a regular medical doctor, %2.08 (0.94 to 4.58).071.08 (0.51 to 2.27).840.68 (0.26 to 1.79).431.75 (0.70 to 4.40).23.09
Perceived unmet health care need, %1.05 (0.39 to 2.85).933.31 (1.13 to 9.70).030.77 (0.25 to 2.43).660.81 (0.28 to 2.32).69.15
Visited medical service provider, %1.32 (0.54 to 3.22).550.89 (0.35 to 2.23).811.60 (0.56 to 4.55).381.08 (0.40 to 2.94).88.75
Visited other clinical service provider, %0.80 (0.29 to 2.19).660.98 (0.34 to 2.80).971.38 (0.51 to 3.76).530.80 (0.28 to 2.27).68.81
Visited social service provider, %0.53 (0.17 to 1.61).260.47 (0.15 to 1.47).190.31 (0.10 to 0.97).040.77 (0.25 to 2.40).65.26
No. of arrests, count0.86 (0.26 to 2.89).811.15 (0.38 to 3.47).812.27 (0.73 to 7.06).160.67 (0.22 to 2.07).49.39
  • CIS, Community Integration Scale psychological integration subscale with possible scores ranging from 4 to 20 (higher scores indicate higher level of integration); CSI, Colorado Symptom Index, a measure of psychiatric symptomatology with possible scores ranging from 5 to 70 (higher scores indicate more severe mental health symptoms); ED, emergency department; EQ-5D, EuroQoL5 Dimensions Visual Analog Scale, a measure of generic quality of life scored from 0 (worst imaginable health state) to 100 (best imaginable health state); GAIN-SPS, Global Assessment of Individual Needs Short Screener—Substance Problem Scale, a measure of substance use problems over the previous month, with possible scores ranging from 0 to 5 (higher scores indicate more symptoms of substance misuse); MCAS, Multnomah Community Ability Scale, a measure of community functioning with possible scores range from 17 to 85 (higher scores indicate a higher level of community functioning); QOLI-20, a measure of condition-specific quality of life with total possible scores ranging from 20 to 140 and subscale scores ranging as follows: family (4–28), finances (2–14), leisure (5–35), living situation (1–7), safety (4–28), social (3–21), and overall quality of life (1–7), with higher scores indicating higher quality of life; RAS, Recovery Assessment Scale, a measure reflecting various components of recovery with possible scores ranging from 22 to 110 (higher scores indicate higher degree of recovery); SF-12, Short Form 12 survey, a measure of physical and mental health status assessed by the physical component summary and mental health component summary, both of which range from 0 to 100 (higher scores indicate better health status).

  • a Models included treatment group (reference: treatment as usual), time (month of visit; reference: baseline), study city (reference: Winnipeg), Aboriginal and ethnoracial status (reference: non-Aboriginal/non-ethnoracial), and treatment × time interaction.

  • b Mean difference for continuous variables, ratio of rate ratios for count variables, and ratio of odds ratio for binary data.