TABLE 2

Sociodemographic and Pregnancy Characteristics of Births in California in 2006 by Race or Ethnicity and Diagnosed Prenatal Substance Exposure

Black (N = 30 885)Hispanic (N = 290 947)White (N = 152 239)
No Substance (95.9%)Substance (4.1%)No Substance (99.0%)Substance (1.0%)No Substance (97.9%)Substance (2.1%)
n%n%χ2 Testn%n%χ2 Testn%n%χ2 Test
Age at childbirth
 ≤19 y430114.514511.4P = .00271 94325.090530.2P < .00169454.72778.8P < .001
 20–24 y846628.633426.477 48726.982827.625 52117.198931.3
 25–29 y748025.333126.167 75123.570723.638 98426.187627.7
 30+ y936931.645736.170 74824.655818.677 62952.1101832.2
Insurance type
 Private13 65246.234627.6P < .00194 51232.971023.9P < .001116 01177.992229.6P < .001
 Public15 86953.890872.4192 96267.1225776.132 84222.1219670.4
Paternity
 Established22 07574.563249.8P < .001259 61590.2173057.7P < .001140 60194.3205264.9P < .001
 Missing754125.563750.228 3339.8126942.384785.7110835.1
Prenatal care
 1st tri24 24781.973958.2P < .001240 51583.5157752.6P < .001134 19590.0179956.9P < .001
 2nd trimester409413.828122.136 85412.873024.311 2887.675323.8
 3rd tri7612.6816.470262.42227.420941.42377.5
No care/missing5141.716813.235531.247015.715021.037111.7
Parity
 First birth12 01840.632725.8P < .001100 30534.883928.0P < .00164 90543.5114936.4P < .001
 Non–first birth17 59859.494274.2187 64365.2216072.084 17456.5201163.6
Infant birth wt
 Normal (≥2500 g)26 22388.595275.0P < .001270 30193.9250483.5P < .001139 81493.8272086.1P < .001
 Low (<2500 g)339311.531725.017 6476.149516.592656.244013.9
  • Tri, trimester.