TABLE 2

Psychosocial Response Tools

ScaleItem FormatPsychometric PropertiesDomains of Use
STAI (20 item)284-point scale from “not at all” to “very much so”Scores range from 20–80; mean (working women) is 34.79 (SD = 9.22); mean (14w postpartum women) 30.43; good construct validity, discriminating adults with generalized anxiety disorder28Used in NBS research to measure anxiety14,2932
BSI (53 items)335-point scale from “not at all” to “extremely”Internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and validity demonstrated33Used to assess impact of newborn diagnosis and as a measure of adjustment over time.3439 Has not been used in NBS research
CVS (8 items)404-point scale from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”Total scores range from 0–24. In a clinical population, scores ≥10 indicate elevated perceptions of vulnerability; internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and validity are well demonstrated40Used in NBS research to measure response to positive NBS results4143
PPUS (4 items)445-point scale from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”Measures the uncertainty parents experience related to their child’s illness; higher scores indicate greater perception of uncertainty. Internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and validity demonstrated44; modified as per Table 3Used to gauge perceived parental uncertainty between identification of symptoms in a child and point of diagnosis.4547 Has not been used in NBS research
MWS (10 items)484-point scale; worry “most of the time,” “often,” “sometimes,” and “not at all”Internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and validity demonstrated48; modified as per Table 3Used for mothers of children with chronic illness.48 Has not been used in NBS research