TABLE 1

Characteristics of 2-Year-Old Children Likely Ineligible for Part C Intervention Services

Variables Considered in Model SelectionPoor School Readiness at Kindergarten (High Problem Behaviors or Low Academic Scores) (n = 1350)Adequate School Readiness at Kindergarten (n = 3450)
High Problem Behaviors and Low Academic Scores (n = 200)High Problem Behaviors (n = 650)Low Academic Scores (n = 900)
Child-level
 Sex
  Male0.670.620.540.46
  Female0.330.380.460.54
 Race/ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic0.390.490.400.60
  African American0.190.180.180.12
  Hispanic or Latino0.340.250.370.20
  Asian0.010.020.010.03
  Multiracial or other0.080.060.040.05
 Gestational age
  <34 wk0.010.020.030.02
  34–36+6/7 wk0.100.100.090.08
   ≥37 wk0.890.880.880.91
 Birth weight
   ≥2500 g0.910.930.930.95
  <2500 g0.090.070.070.05
 Parent-reported child health status
  Excellent or very good0.860.850.850.91
  Good, fair, or poor0.140.150.150.09
 Breastfeeding
   ≥4 mo0.280.300.320.45
  0–3 mo0.720.700.680.55
 Child has Medicaid0.650.520.530.26
 Child enrolled in WIC0.680.570.600.33
 Child is in center-based child care at 2 y0.130.180.130.18
 Child does not combine words0.170.160.190.10
 Parent’s expectation for child’s highest education
  4-y degree or higher0.570.640.640.81
  <4-y degree0.430.360.360.19
Parent/family-level
 Mother’s age, mean ± SD, y24.8 ± 5.925.5 ± 5.825.5 ± 5.928.0 ± 5.7
Highest level of parental education
  Bachelor’s degree or higher0.050.170.110.40
  Some college0.220.240.190.27
  High school diploma0.440.420.420.25
  Less than high school diploma0.290.170.280.08
Household income/poverty status
   ≥185% of FPL0.250.390.310.64
  100%–185% of FPL0.270.260.280.20
  <100% of FPL0.480.350.410.16
 Single-parent household0.350.340.300.17
 English is primary home language0.790.840.740.85
 Parent is US citizen0.850.880.790.88
 Self-reported health status of parent
  Good to excellent0.770.840.840.95
  Fair or poor0.230.160.160.05
 Family history of learning disability0.320.220.210.13
 Food insecurity0.190.150.140.05
 Parental depression0.250.220.160.13
 Parental smoking0.420.340.260.16
 Frequency of shared reading with child
  Every day0.300.400.320.53
  3–6 times/wk0.230.250.270.26
  1–2 times/wk0.370.300.360.20
  Not at all0.100.050.050.02
Home/neighborhood-level
 Quality of house for raising children
  Excellent or very good0.480.590.560.75
  Good, fair, or poor0.520.410.440.25
 Quality of neighborhood for raising children
  Excellent or very good0.400.530.480.69
  Good, fair or poor0.600.470.520.31
Neighborhood safety
  Very or fairly safe0.720.820.860.94
  Fairly or very unsafe0.280.180.140.06
  • For all candidate predictor variables, we present the weighted proportion of each variable in the subsample represented in each column, except for maternal age, which is presented as the mean ± SD. FPL, federal poverty level; LD, learning disability; WIC, Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.