TABLE 3

Predictors at Age 2 Years for Problem Behaviors at Kindergarten Entry

PredictorUnadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)Risk Index Weight (= β/4.9 × 100)
Male sex1.9 (1.4–2.5)1.8 (1.4–2.4)12.4
Highest level of parental education (bachelor’s degree or higher is reference)
 Some college2.0 (1.5–2.7)1.4 (1.0–1.9)7.1
 High school diploma or equivalent3.2 (2.4–4.3)1.9 (1.3–2.7)12.9
 Less than high school diploma3.2 (2.3–4.5)1.5 (1.0–2.3)8.2
Parent health status is fair or poor2.7 (1.9–4.0)1.8 (1.2–2.6)11.6
Single-parent household2.2 (1.7–2.8)1.5 (1.2–2.0)8.8
Parental depression1.9 (1.4–2.7)1.4 (1.0–2.0)7.5
Parental smoking2.5 (1.9–3.1)1.8 (1.4–2.4)12.4
Frequency of shared reading at home (every day is reference)
 3–6 times/wk1.2 (0.9–1.6)0.9 (0.6–1.3)−2.1
 1–2 times/wk1.6 (1.2–2.2)1.1 (0.8–1.6)2.2
 Not at all2.7 (1.6–4.6)1.7 (1.1–2.8)11.3
Family has food insecurity2.6 (1.8–4.0)1.6 (1.1–2.5)10.0
Parent rates neighborhood as fairly or very unsafe2.9 (2.1–4.1)2.0 (1.4–2.8)13.6
  • Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) were derived from bivariate logistic regressions by using each predictor individually to calculate association with high externalizing behaviors (>1 SD above mean) at kindergarten. Adjusted ORs and regression coefficients were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression that includes all of the variables listed in the table. Regression coefficients (β) were used to weight each variable to calculate the risk index, which was scaled to a range of 0 (lowest risk) to 100 (highest risk) using the maximum sum of all β values (4.9). CI, confidence interval.