Predictors at Age 2 Years for Low Academic Scores at Kindergarten Entry

PredictorUnadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)Risk Index Weight (= β/5.3 × 100)
Child does not combine words2.0 (1.5–2.7)1.7 (1.2–2.3)9.8
Parent’s expectation for child’s highest education is less than a 4-y degree2.2 (1.8–2.8)1.3 (1.0–1.7)5.1
Highest level of parental education: (bachelor’s degree or higher is reference)
 Some college2.4 (1.8–3.4)1.7 (1.2–2.5)10.3
 High school diploma or equivalent5.4 (4.0–7.3)3.1 (2.2–4.3)21.1
 Less than high school diploma11.2 (8.0–15.8)5.2 (3.5–7.9)31.2
Parent health status is fair or poor3.0 (2.3–4.0)1.5 (1.1–2.1)8.2
Household income is <185% of FPL3.6 (2.9–4.4)1.4 (1.1–1.8)6.0
Frequency of shared reading at home (every day is reference)
 3–6 times/wk1.7 (1.3–2.2)1.3 (1.0–1.8)5.4
 1–2 times/wk2.8 (2.2–3.6)1.6 (1.2–2.1)8.4
 Not at all4.6 (2.9–7.1)2.1 (1.3–3.5)14.1
Family has food insecurity2.9 (2.1–4.1)1.7 (1.2–2.4)9.5
Family history of learning disability1.6 (1.3–2.1)1.6 (1.2–2.1)9.2
Parent rates quality of house as good, fair, or poor for raising children2.2 (1.8–2.7)1.4 (1.1–1.8)6.7
  • Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) were derived from bivariate logistic regressions by using each predictor individually to calculate association with low academic scores (≥1 SD below mean on language and/or math assessment) at kindergarten. Adjusted ORs and regression coefficients were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression that includes all of the variables listed in the table. Regression coefficients (β) were used to weight each variable to calculate the risk index, which was scaled to represent a range from 0 (lowest risk) to 100 (highest risk), using the maximum possible sum of all β values (5.3). CI, confidence interval; FPL, federal poverty level.