TABLE 4

Systematic Review: Individual Study Characteristics, PAE Studies Only (n = 14)

ReferenceStudy DesignSample SourceASEBA Version UsedaN; Age (Mean (SD); or Range)ASEBA Assessor/Informant
Brown et al 199124Prospective cohortA cohort enrolled in a PAE study which recruited mothers and children born in 1980–1983 at a large univ. teaching hospital (Atlanta, USA). The cohort was predominantly African-American and of low socioeconomic status.CBCL (1983)N:Masters-level psychology graduate students
TRF (1983)Never drank: 19; Stopped drinking: 15; Continued to drink: 20
Age:
5.8 (NR) (eligible range: 5–8 y)
Mattson and Riley 200035bRetrospective cohort, matched control groupFAS/heavy PAE: Children in an ongoing research project at the Center for Behavioral Teratology, San Diego State Univ. (USA).CBCL (4–18 y, 1991)N:Self-administered (primary caregiver)
Control: Self-referred from community outreach and advertizing (San Diego, USA).FAS: 35; Heavy PAE (no FAS): 20
Heavy PAE (±FAS): 33; Control: 33
Age:
FAS/heavy PAE: 9.2 (3.5) y (range: 4.0–15.8 y); Control: 8.4 (3.7) y (range: 4.1–16.5 y)
Sood et al 200132Historical prospective cohort studyChildren of mothers screened for alcohol and drug use at the Fetal Alcohol Research Center (urban univ.-based maternity clinic, Detroit, USA), who were delivered in Sep 1989-Aug 1991 were located at 6–7 y. Data were collected for African-American women only.CBCL (4–18 y, 1991)N:Trained research assistants
No PAE: 117; Low PAE: 323; Moderate/heavy PAE: 66
Age:
Mean: 6.9 (NR) y (eligible range: 6–7 y)
Lee et al 200427Retrospective cohort, matched control groupChildren enrolled in an ongoing research project at the Center for Behavioral Teratology, San Diego State Univ (USA).CBCL (4–18 y, 1991)N:Self-administered (primary caregiver)
Control: From community outreach/advertizing.FAS/heavy PAE: 30; Control: 30
Age:
FAS/heavy PAE: 11.4(2.3) y (range: 9.0–16.8 y); Control: 11.6 (2.1) y (range: 9.0–16.9 y)
Paley et al 200530Cross-sectional studyA major medical center and affiliated health clinics in the surrounding community using flyers (West Coast of the USA). Cohort was predominantly African-American and of low socioeconomic status.CBCL (1991)N:Self-administered (biological mother) or a research assistant (if the mother had difficulty reading)
PAE (moderate-heavy): 20; PAE (abstinent-light): 22
Age: 4.8 (0.8) y
Sood et al 200533Historical prospective cohort studyChildren of mothers screened for alcohol and drug use in antenatal clinics at Wayne State Univ. (Detroit, USA), who were delivered in Sep 1989-Aug 1991 were located at 6–7 y. Data were collected for African-American women only.CBCL (4–18 y, 1991)N:Trained research assistants
Boys:
No PAE+No cocaine: 49; PAE+No cocaine: 103
Girls:
No PAE+No cocaine: 45; PAE+No cocaine: 91
Age:
6–7 y follow-up (mean / range NR)
Bada et al 200723Prospective cohort, control groupMaternal Lifestyle Study, which enrolled children born in 1993–1995 at hospitals: Brown Univ. (Providence, RI); Univ. Miami (Florida); Univ. Tennessee; and Wayne State Univ. (Detroit, USA).CBCL(2–3y, 1992; 14–18 y, 1991)N:Trained research interviewer
No PAE: NR; Some PAE: NR; High PAE: NR
Age:
3, 5, and 7 y follow-up (mean / range NR)
O’Callaghan et al 200728Follow-up analysis (from prospective cohort study)Study of Pregnancy which enrolled children born in 1981–1984 at the Mater Misericordiae Hospital (Brisbane, Australia).CBCL (1991)N:Self-administered (mother; adolescent)
YSR (1991)PAE (early preg):
Nil: 2528; >0 to <0.5 glass/d: 2420; 0.5 to <1 glass/d: 134; ≥ 1 glass/d: 57
PAE (late preg):
Nil: 3258; >0 to <0.5 glass/d: 1624; 0.5 to <1 glass/d: 170; ≥ 1 glass/d: 82
Bingeing:
Never: 4127; < 0.5 time: 884; ≥ 0.5 time: 128
Age:
13.9 (0.3) y (range: 12.5–15.5 y)
Alati et al 200922Follow-up analysis (from prospective cohort study)Study of Pregnancy which enrolled children born in 1981–1984 at the Mater Misericordiae Hospital (Brisbane, Australia).YSR (4–18 y, 1991)N:NR, adolescent
No PAE: 2530; 0–0.5 glass/d: 2536; ≥ 1 glass/d: 66
Age: 14 y (mean / range NR)
Chiu et al 200925Cross-sectional study9 kindergartens and 3 elementary schools in 1998 (Taipei, Taiwan).CBCL (4–18 y, 1990 – Chinese version)N:NR, mother
PAE: 11; No PAE: 50–107
Age:
7.4 (1.5) y (eligible range: 4–9 y)
O’Leary et al 201029Prospective cohort studyRASCALS study, involving children born in 1995–1996 in Western Australia.CBCL (2–3 y, 1991)cN:NR, biological mother
PAE- first trimester:
None: NR; Low: NR; Moderate: NR; Heavy: NR
PAE- Late pregnancy:
None: NR; Low: NR; Moderate: NR; Heavy: NR
Age:
2, 5, and 8 y follow-up (mean / range NR)
Robinson et al 201031Prospective cohort studyRecruited in May 1989-Nov 1991 at public anti-natal clinics in King Edward Memorial Hospital and nearby private clinics (Perth, WA).CBCL (2–3 y at 2y follow-up, 1987; 4–18 y at subsequent follow-ups, 1991)N:NR, biological mother
PAE 18 wks:
Occasional: 539; Light: 419
Moderate: 60; Heavy: 42
PAE 34 wks:
Occasional: 427; Light: 310; Moderate: 38; Heavy: 16
Age: Eligible range: 2–14 y
Graham et al 201326Retrospective cohort, matched control/ comparison groupsCIFASD data from sites: Center for Behavioral Teratology (San Diego State Univ.); Emory Univ.; 7 Northern Plains communities; Univ. New Mexico Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse and Addictions; and Univ. California, Los Angeles Fetal Alcohol and Related Disorders Clinic.CBCL (4–18 y, 1991)N:NR, primary caregivers
FAS/heavy PAE (no ADHD): 35; Control: 102
Age:
FAS/heavy PAE (no ADHD): 12.6 (2.6) y; Control:
12.5 (2.6) y
Ware et al 201334Retrospective cohort, control/ comparison groupsCIFASD data from sites: Center for Behavioral Teratology (San Diego State Univ.); The Fetal Alcohol and Drug Exposure Clinic (Emory Univ.); 7 communities (throughout North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Montana); Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse and Addictions (Univ. New Mexico); and Fetal Alcohol and Related Disorders Clinic (Univ. California).CBCL (4–18 y, 1991)N:Trained examiner
PAE+No ADHD: 52; Control: 133
Age: 12.28 (2.46) y
  • Participant group data (N, age) are presented only for PAE and No PAE groups. Data for all subgroups included within each study can be found in Appendix 2.

  • NR, not reported; Univ., university; CIFASD, Collaborative initiative on fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; YSR, youth self-report; RASCALS study, Randomly ascertained sample of children born in Australia’s largest state study. Mattson and Riley, Lee et al, Graham et al, and Ware et al are clinical studies as opposed to population-based cohort studies.

  • a ASEBA forms listed in the table reflect either what was specified by the authors of the articles and/or the reference(s) they referred to when providing details of their ASEBA assessment.

  • b Mattson and Riley reported ASEBA results for both (1) FAS versus PAE (without FAS); and (2) PAE (with and without FAS) versus Controls.

  • c For school-aged children in this study, contact with the corresponding author was attempted to ask them if the school-age form was also used. No response was received.