TABLE 1

Examples of Solid Tissues Used in Health Research

Biopsy/SurgicalPostmortemOrgan/or Tissue DonorOtherwise Discarded
• Brain41,5254a• Brain41,5561• Cornea62a• Placenta6367
• Heart35,44• Cardiac/skeletal muscle68,69• Retina70,71a• Umbilical cord65,7275
• Liver47,76,77• Heart60,67,68,78,79• Posterior pole/eye70a• Fetal tissues:
• Kidney39,80,81• Pituitary gland82• Whole eye 83,84b -Kidney67,85,86a
• Intestine38,76• Liver45,57,60,67,87,88• Lens89a -Liver67,85a
• Bladder90• Intestine91,92• Skin85a -Skeletal muscle67,85a
• Lung93• Kidney57,60,67• Heart valves, pulmonary artery, and aorta94c -Heart67,85a
• Placenta45,95• Hippocampus96• Bone marrow97100 -Pancreas85a
• Oral mucosa/maxilla101,102• Lung10,57,103105• Musculoskeletal tissue106a -Brain85a
• Knee joint tissues107• Bone marrow108,109• Brain106,110,111a 59,112114 -Skin85a
• Adipose tissue115• Muscle67• Lymph nodes116c -Bone117
• Muscle37• Cornea118• Liver106,119a 120b -Spine tissue121
• Gastric mucosa76,122• Placenta67,95,123,124• Lung106a, 125b• Cornea126a
• Bone marrow39,109,127• Knee joint tissues128• Trachea129c• Kidney130c
• Bone42• Spleen57,104• Heart106a, 131b• Pancreas132a
• Pancreas76• Peripheral nerves133• Pancreas and pancreatic islets106,120,134136a• Heart137
• Ovarian tissue138• Bile duct40• Stomach and esophagus139b• Ovarian tissue140,141
• Thyroid gland38,142• Gastric mucosa143,144• Kidney106a, 145b• Tumors:
• Adrenal glands38,39• Bone146• Bladder147b -Skeletal muscle tissue148
• Soft tissue36• Pancreas149• Intestine106a -Bladder150
• Nerve tissue39• Spleen106a -Brain151
• Esophagus152• Bone: -Kidney153
• Musculoskeletal tissue42 -Femur154,155b -Liver156
• Bile duct40 -Tibia157b -Soft tissue158
• Skin159• Liver/living donors160 -Extremities (adipose tissue origin)161
• Sinus tissue162 -Thyroid163
• Lens tissue/eye164
  • a References in which research was conducted by using organs/tissues from children/fetus and adults.

  • b References in which research was conducted by using adult organs/tissues only.

  • c Tissue specimens for no age of donor is indicated in the reference article.