TABLE 2

Ownership of ABM

StudyCountry (Data Collection Period)Study DesignSampleABM TypeExtent of OwnershipSurvey Item(s)
Workman (2003)57USA (2000–2001)C-SN = 260 seventh- to twelfth-graders; aged 12–18 y; 59.2% femaleClothing36.5%; boys = girls“Do you own something that has an alcohol brand name on it, such as a T-shirt or a hat?” [yes/no]a
“If you own something with an alcohol brand name on it, what is it? Please check every item that you own. For each item that you check, please estimate how many items you own”a
“Do you want to own something (or something else) with an alcohol brand name on it?” [yes/no]a (plus questions re brand names and source of ABM)
Workman (2004)58USA (2001)C-SN = 320 university students; aged 18–24 y; 43.7% femaleClothing44.7%; males > females“Do you own an item of clothing that has an alcohol brand name on it?” [yes/no]a
“If you own a clothing item with an alcohol brand name on it, what is it? Please check every item that you own. For each item that you check, please estimate how many items you own”a
“Do you want to own something (or something else) with an alcohol brand name on it?” [yes/no]a (plus questions re brand names and source of ABM)
McClure et al (2006)21USA (2000–2001)C-SbN = 2406 fifth- to eighth-graders; aged 10–14 y; 53.8% femaleAny14.2%; boys > girls“Do you own something that has the name of a beer or an alcohol brand on it, like a T-shirt, a backpack, or a hat?” [those answering yes were asked to list the types of items owned]
Hurtz et al (2007)24USA (2003)C-SN = 2125 sixth- to eighth-graders; age not stated; 53.1% femaleAny20%; boys > girls“Have you ever owned an item—like a T-shirt, lighter, matches, hat, or sunglasses—with an alcohol brand name on it?” [yes/no/don't know]
Gordon et al (2011)59Scotland (2007)C-SN = 920 second-year students; aged 12–14 y; 52.9% femaleAny45% (clothing); boys > girlsc“Can you look at each of these cards and tell me which, if any, of these you have ever done?... Owned clothing, such as football or other sports-tops, or other personal items with an alcohol brand name or logo on it” [yes/no/don't know]a
McClure et al (2013)25USA (2009)C-SdN = 1734 ever-drinkers; aged 15–20 y (65% 18–20 y); 49% femaleAny33%; not reported by genderSingle item: “Do you own something with an alcohol brand on it?”
Swahn (2013a)60Philippines (2011)C-SN = 5290 students; aged 11–16 y (primarily 13–16 y); 56.4% femaleAny14.7%; not reported by gender…students who have a T-shirt, pen, backpack, or other item, with an alcohol brand logo on it [question wording not reported]
Swahn (2013b)61Uganda (2011)C-SN = 457 urban youth; aged 14–24 y; 69% femaleAny25.9%; not reported by gender…youth who have a T-shirt, pen, backpack, or other item, with an alcohol brand logo on it [question wording not reported]
Jones et al (2015)62Australia (2012)C-SN = 210 secondary students; aged 12–17 y (primarily 13–15 y); 52.3% femaleAny59.0%; boys = girlseSix items: “Do you own any [hats/T-shirts/cups or bottle holders/bags or coolers/sports equipment/other products]?”
Collins et al (2007)22USA (2001–2002)LN = 1786 sixth-grade students (resurveyed seventh grade); mean: 11.8 y at baseline; 51% femaleAny19%; not reported by gender“Do you own any hats, posters, or T-shirts that advertise alcohol (beer, wine, liquor, or wine coolers) [yes/no]
Fisher et al (2007)23USA (1998–1999)P-CN = 5511; aged 11–18 y at baseline; 59.6% femaleAny26% owned or willing to use; boys > girls“Have you ever bought or been given stuff like a hat, T-shirt, bag, or cards with the name of an alcohol drink on it (like Coors beer, Absolut vodka, or Kahlua)?” [yes/no]a
Do you think you would ever use something with the name of an alcohol drink on it?” [yes/no]a
Henriksen et al (2008)20USA (2003–2004)LN = 1080; sixth- to eighth-graders (never-drinkers at baseline); aged 10–15 y; 57.3% femaleAny21% owned, 19% wanted to own; boys > girls“Have you ever owned an item—like a T-shirt, lighter, matches, hat, or sunglasses with an alcohol brand name on it?” [yes/no]
“Would you want to own or use an item with an alcohol brand name on it?” [yes/no]
McClure et al (2009)63USA (2004–2005)LN = 6522 at baseline (5503 wave 2, 5019 wave 3, 4575 wave 4); aged 10–14 yAny11% at wave 2, increasing to 20% at wave 4; boys > girlsAsked about ownership, type, brand, source [question wording not reported] (plus questions re brand names and source of ABM)
  • C-S, cross-sectional; L, longitudinal; males = females, ownership does not differ between male and females; males > females, indicates ownership higher among males than females; P-C, prospective cohort.

  • a Additional detail obtained from corresponding author.

  • b Longitudinal survey (2 time points) but ABM ownership only collected at follow-up.

  • c Not reported in article; data obtained from author (July 17, 2015).

  • d Remaining sample from McClure et al21 study.

  • e Not reported in article; data obtained from author (July 27, 2015).