TABLE 2

Unadjusted and Adjusted Mean per Capita Food Allergy Expenditures

Race or EthnicityIncome Level
WhiteAfrican AmericanHispanicAsianMultiracial, Other, or UnknownHousehold Income <$50 000Household Income $50 000–99 000Household Income >$100 000
Weighted Mean $ (SE)PWeighted Mean $ (SE)P
Total direct costs
 Unadjusted657 (106)300 (69)527 (206)583 (300)1796 (1000)*728 (181)580 (109)613 (132)
 Adjusted999 (104)493 (109)643 (224)885 (514)2961 (880)**1374 (274)1024 (125)940 (128)
Total pediatrician costs
 Unadjusted82 (06)80 (19)103 (23)43 (16)178 (60)80 (09)100 (10)69 (08)
 Adjusted119 (09)99 (22)116 (24)72 (24)231 (52)123 (14)143 (12)103 (11)*
Total specialist costs
 Unadjusted192 (14)103 (28)102 (29)52 (20)321 (148)**121 (15)211 (25)219 (18)**
 Adjusted310 (13)157 (40)127 (37)101 (36)440 (104)**228 (21)330 (27)311 (18)***
Total ED and hospitalization costs
 Unadjusted380 (99)115 (48)319 (188)478 (275)1410 (918)522 (169)280 (97)321 (120)
 Adjusted504 (79)108 (60)395 (220)1271 (630)1536 (599)**1021 (209)434 (106)416 (94)*
Total out-of-pocket costs
 Unadjusted1362 (125)110 (29)417 (164)192 (102)2450 (888)**791 (125)1156 (157)1933 (298)***
 Adjusted4203 (750)395 (452)1093 (856)1327 (1948)6577 (2560)**3174 (858)3434 (658)5062 (1168)
Total health care costs
 Unadjusted223 (37)43 (11)182 (88)88 (59)642 (364)**211 (64)207 (42)218 (27)
 Adjusted498 (90)117 (65)196 (89)157 (131)1458 (884)**572 (159)456 (101)547 (110)
Total medication costs
 Unadjusted138 (09)26 (07)96 (46)42 (14)195 (72)**84 (13)131 (13)186 (16)**
 Adjusted312 (28)52 (18)148 (78)87 (37)251 (50)**171 (26)275 (30)366 (44)**
Total mental health and legal costs
 Unadjusted32 (05)08 (08)06 (06)01 (01)240 (168)**14 (05)40 (17)63 (14)***
 Adjusted78 (13)11 (16)02 (04)03 (09)447 (125)**59 (18)85 (19)119 (28)
Total school, camp, and child care costs
 Unadjusted401 (62)15 (10)57 (49)47 (36)703 (232)**150 (39)302 (66)787 (185)***
 Adjusted1107 (321)46 (165)31 (86)149 (1911)1199 (642)*529 (285)716 (192)1592 (646)
Total food costs
 Unadjusted392 (35)16 (07)39 (23)13 (07)454 (104)**214 (32)330 (46)493 (63)***
 Adjusted1213 (200)177 (501)219 (281)148 (290)1548 (762)**744 (216)941 (230)1545 (347)
  • Adjusted means reflected predicted values from 2-part models controlling for gender, race, age, family income, region, having multiple food allergies, and a report of a severe reaction in the past year. Generalized linear models (2nd part) use γ or Poisson distributions and log links depending the results of modified Park tests.

  • * P < .05 for F-test of equality of means across groups.

  • ** P < .001 for F-test of equality of means across groups.

  • *** P < .01 for F-test of equality of means across groups.