TABLE 3

Cross-sectional Studies: Association Between ABM Ownership and Drinking

StudyCountry (Data Collection Period)SampleABM TypeAssociation
InitiationRecencyDrunkenness
Workman (2003)57USA (2000–2001)260 Seventh- to twelfth-graders; 59.2% femaleClothing+NRNR
Workman (2004)58USA (2001)320 University students (18–25 y); 43.7% femaleClothing+++
McClure et al (2006)21USA (2000–2001)2406 Fifth- to eighth-graders (never-drinkers at baseline); 53.8% femaleAny+NRNR
Hurtz et al (2007)24USA (2003)2125 Students in sixth to eighth grade; 53.1% femaleAny++NR
Gordon et al (2011)59aScotland (2007)920 Junior secondary students aged 12–14 y; 52.9% femaleAny+NRNR
McClure et al (2013)25USA (2009)1734 Ever-drinkers aged 15–20 y; 49% femaleAnyNRNR+
Swahn (2013a)60Philippines (2011)5290 Students, primarily aged 13–16 y; 56.4% femaleAnyNR??
Swahn (2013b)61Uganda (2011)457 Urban youth aged 14–24 y; 69% femaleAnyNR??
Jones et al (2015)62Australia (2012)210 Secondary students aged 12–17 y; 52.3% femaleAny+NR
  • NR, not reported/assessed; +, significant association between ABM ownership and behavior; 0, no significant association; ?, significant in bivariate, not significant in the multivariate analysis.

  • a A subsequent article by the same authors on wave 2 of this project (2-stage cohort study) reported that involvement with alcohol marketing at baseline was predictive of uptake of drinking and increased frequency of drinking, but data were not separately reported for individual forms of marketing (eg, ABM).