TABLE 1

Outcomes by Randomization Condition and Assessment Week

MeasuresCBT + TAU (n=106)TAU Control (n=106)PEffect SizeaMean Difference, Hazard Ratio, or Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Mean or nSD or %Mean or nSD or %
Youth measures
 CDRS-RSpline model
  Baseline52.108.1653.9710.58Through 52.04bd = 0.278−2.25 (−4.45∼0.05)
  Wk 638.4311.0641.1612.2752 to 104.36bd = 0.145−1.30 (−3.73∼1.14)
  Wk 1233.5610.3540.6713.21
  Wk 2630.7610.4033.7811.53
  Wk 5230.1411.2628.2410.54
  Wk 7828.9610.2132.3413.45
  Wk 10428.119.8829.1710.79
 CDRS-R ≥50% improvement from baselineSpline model
  Wk 63534.65%3030.61%Through 52.09bNNT = 101.25 (0.79∼1.96)
  Wk 124853.33%3537.63%52 to 104.23bNNT = 191.10 (0.65∼1.86)
  Wk 265864.44%5054.35%
  Wk 525968.60%6777.01%
  Wk 785871.60%5166.23%
  Wk 1047278.26%6472.73%
 CDRS-R <28Spline model
  Baseline00.0%00.0%Through 52.03bNNT = 161.39 (0.88–2.21)
  Wk 62221. 8%1313.3%52 to 104.40bNNT = 201.00 (0.62–1.63)
  Wk 122831.1%1314.0%
  Wk 263640.0%3133.7%
  Wk 524350.0%5158.6%
  Wk 784251.9%3646.8%
  Wk 1045256.5%4854.6%
 MD diagnostic recoverySurvival model
  Baseline00%00%Through 52.005NNT = 101.60 (1.15∼2.21)
  Wk 6NANANANAThrough 104.003NNT =101.59 (1.17∼2.17)
  Wk 123131.3%1212.1%
  Wk 266969.7%4343.4%
  Wk 527979.8%6868.7%
  Wk 788686.9%7575.8%
  Wk 1048888.9%7878.8%
 MD diagnostic responseSurvival model
  Baseline00.0%00.0%Through 52.03NNT = 341.39 (1.03∼1.87)
  Wk 6NANANANAThrough 104.03NNT = 501.38 (1.03∼1.84)
  Wk 126868.7%4747.5%
  Wk 268484.9%7373.7%
  Wk 529090.9%8787.9%
  Wk 789393.9%9090.9%
  Wk 1049393.9%9191.9%
 CES-DSpline model
  Baseline28.347.5827.967.74Through 52.005cd = 0.394−2.88 (−4.87∼ −0.89)
  Wk 1222.536.2425.258.3252 to 104.62bd = 0.055−0.32 (−1.91∼1.27)
  Wk 2621.066.4822.817.79
  Wk 5222.597.0022.517.43
  Wk 7820.937.0321.648.10
  Wk 10421.467.4421.916.95
 CGASSpline model
  Baseline58.386.1257.336.88Through 52.007cd = 0.4314.2 (1.55∼6.86)
  Wk 664.388.1662.127.6452 to 104.21bd = 0.0160.13 (−2.08∼2.34)
  Wk 1269.238.8663.9110.23
  Wk 2672.529.2069.6310.41
  Wk 5272.339.9774.1010.81
  Wk 7874.8510.1773.8311.89
  Wk 10476.8611.0376.4511.09
 DASSpline model
  Baseline25.147.4125.087.05Through 52.003cd = 0.441−4.49 (−7.27 ∼ −1.72)
  Wk 1222.207.3724.907.5652 to 104.93bd = 0.075−0.51 (−2.33 ∼1.32)
  Wk 5222.628.1023.027.57
  Wk 10421.007.6421.437.25
 Carskadon Sleep Habits SurveySpline model
  Baseline7.861.758.101.95Through 52.21cd = 0.1070.21 (−0.33∼0.75)
  
  Wk 128.052.028.032.5552 to 104.98bd = 0.094−0.14 (−0.55∼0.27)
  Wk 268.321.948.092.52
  Wk 527.841.798.001.87
  Wk 788.201.978.262.23
  Wk 1047.921.658.102.51
 ISISpline model
  Baseline12.805.5912.775.60Through 52.13cd = 0.264−1.57 (−3.19∼0.05)
  Wk 129.985.9512.026.2452 to 104.31bd = 0.097−0.49 (−1.85∼0.87)
  Wk 269.006.0810.256.24
  Wk 529.306.0910.255.86
  Wk 788.806.029.546.72
  Wk 1048.845.738.726.10
 PEDS-QL totalSpline model
  Baseline56.3013.3757.6611.37Through 52.03cd = 0.2843.77 (0.16∼7.39)
  Wk 666.3915.5464.3913.0552 to 104.32bd = 0.020−0.23 (−3.38∼2.93)
  Wk 1266.8713.6362.4413.67
  Wk 2670.1914.6467.5514.47
  Wk 5268.2314.5766.4212.92
  Wk 7870.2314.1071.5014.25
  Wk 10470.8813.4571.3813.22
 PEDS-QL physicalSpline model
  Baseline65.7717.0768.1015.69Through 52.02cd = 0.2650.81 (−2.99∼4.61)
  Wk 673.8316.3671.3715.1752 to 104.51bd = 0.0584.19 (−0.11∼8.48)
  Wk 1273.7014.6569.0317.18
  Wk 2675.5815.8373.1216.87
  Wk 5274.7515.8871.8616.07
  Wk 7875.2916.5975.7817.17
  Wk 10476.6315.6075.6217.00
 PEDS-QL psychosocialSpline model
  Baseline51.2514.1652.0912.24Through 52.08cd = 0.2503.53 (−0.31∼7.37)
  Wk 662.3617.1460.6614.3852 to 104.32bd = 0.063−0.76 (−4.06∼2.54)
  Wk 1263.2215.3058.9414.19
  Wk 2667.3215.6664.6015.30
  Wk 5264.7415.4463.5113.46
  Wk 7867.5215.2669.1614.84
  Wk 10467.8114.1069.1213.73
 CRAFFT ≥2Spline model
  Baseline2625.242422.64Through 52.25cNNT = 191.02 (0.50∼2.10)
  Wk 121416.871617.3952 to 104.56bNNT = 161.21 (0.56∼2.61)
  Wk 261113.411718.89
  Wk 521618.391719.54
  Wk 782124.711518.29
  Wk 1042122.831819.57
 PES: Total number of activitiesSpline model
  Baseline16.473.5816.813.51Through 52.40bd = 0.1010.28 (−0.47∼1.04)
  Wk 1217.523.3416.793.1452 to 104.44bd = 0.0980.30 (−0.52∼1.11)
  Wk 5217.873.4217.643.48
  Wk 10418.053.5318.123.44
 PES: Average pleasure for activitiesSpline model
  Baseline1.43.291.43.31Through 52.73bd = 0.1710.05 (−0.02∼0.11)
  Wk 121.56.311.47.3152 to 104.070bd = 0.010<0.01 (−0.07∼0.07)
  Wk 521.56.321.52.32
  Wk 1041.59.281.63.26
 Client satisfactionSpline model
  Baseline24.525.8425.504.12Through 52.22cd = 0.1020.89 (−1.50∼3.29)
  Wk 1226.106.1525.563.8252 to 104.99bd = 0.136−0.93 (−2.78∼0.93)
  Wk 2628.133.2725.374.81
  Wk 5225.655.64525.684.69
  Wk 7825.676.1227.903.65
  Wk 10426.575.4827.584.77
 TCCSpline model
  Wk 128.763.127.403.18Through 52.01bd = 0.2990.78 (0.07∼1.49)
  Wk 268.573.058.043.0852 to 104.65bd = 0.101−0.25 (-0.94∼0.43)
  Wk 528.932.779.212.57
  Wk 788.954.319.043.08
  Wk 1048.873.029.363.15
 KSAD suicidal behaviorSpline model
  Baseline2422.5%2826.4%Through 52.27bNNT = 371.03 (0.47∼2.27)
  Wk 1222.3%101.9%52 to 104.51bNNT = 111.21 (0.32∼3.78)
  Wk 2611.2%22.3%
  Wk 5255.8%22.4%
  Wk 7822.5%33.8%
  Wk 10411.1%11.1%
Parent Report about Child
 CBCL depression scoreSpline model
  Baseline10.634.4010.435.32Through 52.35cd = 0.073−0.38 (−1.82∼1.05)
  Wk 127.974.387.574.6452 to 104.80bd = 0.061−0.27 (−1.48∼0.94)
  Wk 267.294.327.854.84
  Wk 526.924.576.704.25
  Wk 787.144.757.624.74
  Wk 1047.395.487.305.19
 CBCL internalizingSpline model
  Baseline19.658.4619.949.56Through 52.67cd = 0.056−0.54 (−3.14∼2.07)
  Wk 1215.258.6114.578.1552 to 104.90bd = 0.062−0.51 (−2.73∼1.71)
  Wk 2613.757.1314.698.80
  Wk 5213.338.2813.398.14
  Wk 7813.588.3213.918.34
  Wk 10413.1410.2913.239.09
 CBCL externalizingSpline model
  Baseline13.878.9315.671.53Through 52.96cd = 0.180−1.70 (−4.29∼0.88)
  Wk 1211.227.3313.238.8752 to 104.49bd = 0.094−0.80 (−3.14∼1.53)
  Wk 2611.607.0012.309.01
  Wk 5210.197.4111.669.65
  Wk 7810.467.8710.577.76
  Wk 10410.108.589.778.17
 PEDS-QL totalSpline model
  Baseline70.6411.1670.6512.46Through 52.73cd = 0.0400.55 (−3.21∼4.31)
  Wk 672.4912.1772.5614.6652 to 104.15bd = 0.0861.05 (−2.27∼4.36)
  Wk 1273.3312.5773.7215.26
  Wk 2674.2412.2073.7715.32
  Wk 5275.4014.5776.9412.43
  Wk 7877.3011.7576.2914.39
  Wk 10477.0313.2275.5216.17
 PEDS-QL physicalSpline model
  Baseline80.7413.6281.2212.41Through 52.25cd = 0.1171.91 (–2.51∼6.32)
  Wk 679.7514.7980.1015.9452 to 104.15bd = 0.1371.96 (–1.93∼5.85)
  Wk 1278.0216.1378.4018.24
  Wk 2680.9714.1077.7517.82
  Wk 5280.6415.7781.6815.26
  Wk 7883.5713.0180.0619.48
  Wk 10482.6115.9280.1519.31
PEDS-QL psychosocialSpline model
  Baseline65.2513.0664.9115.02Through 52.89cd = 0.013−0.19 (–4.28∼3.91)
  Wk 668.5913.6968.5315.5952 to 104.24bd = 0.0440.58 (–2.99∼4.15)
  Wk 1270.7313.0071.1715.58
  Wk 2670.6713.6671.6416.27
  Wk 5272.6015.8074.4514.11
  Wk 7873.9514.1274.2714.11
  Wk 10474.0414.4372.9217.67
 CES-DSpline model
  Baseline18.806.6520.557.82Through 52.97cd = 0.291−0.89 (–2.38∼0.60)
  Wk 1218.266.9319.056.9552 to 104.74bd = 0.384−0.70 (–2.28∼0.88)
  Wk 2617.716.5619.456.89
  Wk 5217.605.6219.127.12
  Wk 7817.075.7819.967.88
  Wk 10416.766.8217.866.38
 TCCSpline model
  Wk 127.662.826.763.02Through 52.07bd = 0.1500.41 (–0.34∼1.16)
  Wk 267.833.027.363.1452 to 104.55bd = 0.025−0.07 (–0.79∼0.66)
  Wk 528.702.778.872.84
  Wk 788.262.968.752.93
  Wk 1049.182.798.813.18
  • NA, not applicable.

  • a Cohen d for continuous measures, NNT for dichotomous measures.

  • b Linear time trend.

  • c Quadratic time trend.