HRs for URI by Presence of Virus and/or Bacteria in the Nasopharynx (n = 395)

Presence of Virus and/or Bacterian%HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
No virus or bacteria5013ref
Any virus295758.70 (6.20–12.2)
M catarrhalisa211536.10 (4.04–9.23)
S pneumoniaea98252.18 (1.44–3.31)
H influenzaea70181.15 (0.89–1.48)
No RSVb or M catarrhalis18848ref
No RSV, M catarrhalis177451.33 (1.08–1.63)ref
RSV, no M catarrhalis1541.73 (1.15–2.60)1.30 (0.85–2.00)ref
RSV and M catarrhalis1541.24 (0.84–1.83)0.93 (0.62–1.40)0.72 (0.50–1.18)
No RVb or M catarrhalis11629ref
No RV, M catarrhalis98251.63 (1.25–2.13)ref
RV, no M catarrhalis87222.58 (1.98–3.38)1.48 (1.14–2.19)ref
RV and M catarrhalis94242.51 (1.98–3.18)1.54 (1.16–2.04)0.97 (0.76–1.25)
No MPVb or M catarrhalis19449ref
No MPV, M catarrhalis177451.33 (1.09–1.62)ref
MPV, no M catarrhalis,923.69 (2.25–6.06)2.87 (1.66–4.65)ref
MPV and M catarrhalis1542.03 (1.40–2.94)1.53 (1.07–2.20)0.55 (0.30–1.00)
  • CI, confidence interval

  • a With or without other bacteria.

  • b With or without other viruses.