TABLE 5

Multivariate Analysis of Correlates of Psychiatric ED Visits Among Racial and Ethnic Groups

African AmericanHispanicOther
RRR95% CIRRR95% CIRRR95% CI
Year1.14*1.03 to 1.271.100.98 to 1.241.000.77 to 1.30
Age group, y
 6–11ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 12–170.860.50 to 1.461.370.68 to 2.760.430.08 to 2.40
 18–240.770.49 to 1.210.780.38 to 1.580.350.07 to 1.73
Region
 NortheastReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Midwest0.930.52 to 1.690.35*0.20 to 0.610.590.15 to 2.39
 South1.450.85 to 2.500.730.41 to 1.270.650.23 to 1.77
 West0.49*0.26 to 0.952.11*1.31 to 3.411.350.66 to 2.81
Sex
 FemaleReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Male1.260.99 to 1.611.150.83 to 1.591.080.58 to 2.01
Insurance
 PrivateReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Public3.36*2.23 to 5.052.72*1.85 to 4.000.970.35 to 2.72
 Self-pay2.99*1.81 to 4.922.42*1.48 to 3.930.770.28 to 2.07
 Other2.93*1.56 to 5.501.840.91 to 5.022.680.98 to 4.53
Visit on a weekend
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes1.010.72 to 1.420.870.59 to 1.261.310.65 to 2.63
Arrival time
 Morning (<11 am)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Afternoon (11 am–4 pm)1.000.69 to 1.441.130.73 to 1.770.970.41 to 2.31
 Evening (5 pm–12 am)1.010.73 to 1.421.060.72 to 1.561.100.53 to 2.31
Urgent
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes0.67*0.45 to 0.970.890.39 to 2.010.940.41 to 2.14
 Length of visit1.130.99 to 1.281.080.96 to 1.210.980.71 to 1.36
Arrive by ambulance
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes1.300.94 to 1.801.230.85 to 1.751.880.85 to 4.16
Mental health provider seen
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes0.870.61 to 1.230.810.55 to 1.190.380.13 to 1.13
Admit to hospital
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes or transfer0.800.52 to 1.240.690.40 to 1.201.350.50 to 3.64
 Psychiatric facility0.970.58 to 1.630.690.42 to 1.110.660.22 to 1.96
Psychiatric diagnosis or RFVa
 Mood0.770.58 to 1.020.910.67 to 1.221.620.73 to 3.64
 Behavior1.60*1.09 to 2.341.340.87 to 2.060.410.14 to 1.23
 SUDs0.74*0.56 to 0.970.730.52 to 1.010.39*0.20 to 0.69
 Psychosis1.380.89 to 2.500.780.44 to 1.410.420.15 to 1.13
 Suicide attempt or self-injury0.910.56 to 1.420.820.55 to 1.231.820.88 to 3.74
 Other1.170.87 to 1.570.800.55 to 1.161.330.68 to 2.62
Count of diagnoses and/or RFVs0.940.78 to 1.150.75*0.60 to 0.940.800.37 to 1.71
 Primary diagnosis is psychiatric0.930.69 to 1.270.760.52 to 1.111.44−0.01 to 2.5
  • RRR, relative risk ratio.

  • a Reflects the presence of any of the listed diagnoses or RFVs; non-Hispanic white patients served as the reference group.

  • * P < .05.