TABLE 2

Multivariate Analysis of Correlates of Psychiatric ED Visits Among Age Groups

ChildrenAdolescents
RRR95% CIRRR95% CI
Year1.040.89 to 1.221.040.94 to 1.14
Region
 NortheastReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Midwest0.560.29 to 1.090.990.67 to 1.45
 South0.670.37 to 1.231.040.69 to 1.59
 West0.49*0.27 to 0.900.740.49 to 1.12
Sex
 FemaleReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Male2.65*1.67 to 4.190.780.61 to 0.99
Race and/or ethnicity
 White, non-HispanicReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 African American, non-Hispanic1.280.81 to 2.031.100.79 to 1.55
 Hispanic1.270.64 to 2.521.74*1.22 to 2.47
 Other2.960.63 to 13.951.210.54 to 2.74
Insurance
 PrivateReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Public1.420.79 to 2.571.030.74 to 1.43
 Self-pay0.30*0.10 to 0.920.22*0.14 to 0.34
 Other0.480.14 to 1.700.26*0.12 to 0.54
Visit on a weekend
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes0.57*0.15 to 0.940.860.63 to 1.18
Arrival time
 Morning (<11 am)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Afternoon (11 am–4 pm)1.740.91 to 3.141.69*1.19 to 2.39
 Evening (5 pm–12 am)2.35*1.34 to 4.122.04*1.49 to 2.80
Urgent
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes0.850.50 to 1.441.76*1.24 to 2.50
 Length of visit0.990.99 to 1.001.000.99 to 1.00
Arrive by ambulance
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes0.39*0.21 to 0.750.71*0.54 to 0.93
Mental health provider seen
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes1.060.32 to 2.112.08*1.46 to 2.96
Admit to hospital
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes or transfer to another hospital0.580.31 to 1.111.060.67 to 1.69
 Transfer or admit to a psychiatric facility1.480.61 to 3.582.47*1.49 to 4.11
Psychiatric diagnosis or RFVa
 Mood0.830.50 to 1.371.57*1.18 to 2.08
 Behavior7.64*4.62 to 12.622.53*1.79 to 3.56
 SUDs0.05*0.02 to 0.130.41*0.30 to 0.54
 Psychosis0.570.22 to 1.470.670.44 to 1.02
 Suicide attempt or intentional self-injury0.470.19 to 1.143.19*2.27 to 4.48
 Other1.68*1.12 to 2.531.87*1.43 to 2.43
Count of diagnoses and/or RFVs0.860.61 to 1.201.30*1.09 to 1.54
Primary diagnosis is psychiatric
 NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes0.960.61 to 1.512.21*1.66 to 2.93
  • RRR, relative risk ratio.

  • a Reflects the presence of any of the listed diagnoses or RFVs; young adults served as the reference group.

  • * P < .05.