TABLE 1

Demographic Characteristics and Manipulation Checks Used to Assess the Effects of Gratitude in the Different Intervention Groups

Evaluated MeasureControlExpressions of GratitudeP
Neutral Greeting, n = 38Mother and Expert, n = 40Mother Only (Expert-Neutral), n = 42Expert Only (Mother-Neutral), n = 43
Age, mean ± SD, y37.0 ± 8.236.3 ± 7.637.6 ± 7.435.5 ± 5.5.56
Male sex, %17.922.513.927.9.42
Occupational experience, mean ± SD, y9.0 ± 9.38.1 ± 9.210.0 ± 9.47.1 ± 6.9.49
Experience in neonatology, mean ± SD, y6.9 ± 8.66.2 ± 8.67.7 ± 8.14.6 ± 5.5.34
Manipulation check: expert, mean ± SD (median)4.6 ± 0.6 (4.9)4.8 ± 0.4 (5.0)4.6 ± 0.5 (4.8)4.5 ± 0.6 (4.8).13
Manipulation check: mother, mean ± SD (median)4.5 ± 0.6 (4.7)a4.8 ± 0.4 (5.0)b4.7 ± 0.4 (4.8)a,b4.4 ± 0.6 (4.6)b<.001
  • All comparisons of years were done by using 1-way ANOVA on means. Comparison of sex distribution among groups was done by using the χ2 analysis. All the comparisons for the manipulation checks were done by using Kruskal-Wallis 1-way ANOVA on ranks because the distribution was not normal. The manipulation checks analyses were also conducted at the group or team level, and the results were equivalent.

  • a Multiple comparisons between all pairs of groups revealed (by using Dunn’s method) that the significant differences (P < .05) were between the group exposed to expression of gratitude from both the expert and the mother and the control group.

  • b Multiple comparisons between all pairs of groups revealed (by using Dunn’s method) that the significant differences (P < .05) were between the groups exposed to expression of gratitude from the mother or both the mother and the expert and the group exposed to expression of gratitude from the expert only.