TABLE 1

Coding Definitions and Examples of Parent Verbalizations

DefinitionExamplesCohen’s κ
DialogicDialogic reading techniques often prompt a child to expand and elaborate on concepts related to the story. These were defined as follows: parent asks open-ended question, expands on an idea the child has, repeats what the child says, or relates the story content to the child’s experience.“What’s happening here?” “What did they do next?” “What did you think about that book?” “Remember when you went to the beach with Dad?” Child says, “Here is a wagon,” and parent replies, “a big, red wagon.”0.77
NondialogicNondialogic reading techniques were related to story content but have not been previously shown to elicit the same quantity of child verbalizations as dialogic verbalizations. These were defined as follows: parent labels something, asks a simple question requiring only a name or label, makes a pointing request of the child, makes an attention prompt, or talks about the process of reading.“What is that?” “Show me the cat.” “Look at this!” “There’s Grandma!”0.74
Text readParent reads directly from the book text.“We went to the beach, just grandma and me.”0.86
Format relatedThese are verbalizations that are related to the book format. Parent comments on, asks a question about, or adds a directive regarding an aspect of the print or tablet interface.“Great job, you’re turning the page!” “Can I hold the book or tablet?” “Go ahead and turn the page.” “You can push the button here.” “Swipe with your finger.”0.84
Negative format-related directivesParent makes a negative directive that is related to the book format. For instance, the parent tells the child not to do something related to how the book or tablet functions.“You can’t keep pressing the back button.” “Don’t turn the page.” “Don’t rip the book.” “Don’t turn the volume up.” “Don’t touch that button.”0.80
Off taskThese are unrelated to the book content or book format and include all other parent verbalizations that are not categorized as above.“You can have your goldfish later.” “We are going to the store after this.”0.79