TABLE 3

Nonverbal Coding Definitions

Shared Positive AffectCollaborative Book Reading
DefinitionQuantity of shared enjoyment between dyadQuality of shared reading experience
Intraclass correlation0.840.75
Code 1A score of 1 was marked by little positive shared affect or enjoyment, several instances of negative affect that occur more frequently than instances of positive affect, and/or the child having a tantrum or refusal of prolonged duration or high frequency.A score of 1 was marked by greater distance between the parent and child, the parent making few attempts to engage the child or being overly directive and/or intrusive, or the child missing social bids from the parent or being confrontational and/or defiant.
Code 3A score of 3 was marked by small-to-moderate amounts of positive affect between the dyad with brief but unsustained instances of negative affect, or the dyad may be primarily affectively neutral.A score of 3 was marked by some instances of close dyad proximity with some instances of greater distance between them, some attempts of parent-child engagement but less in frequency than a code 4 or 5, and/or the dyad seeming more focused on the reading task than on each other.
Code 5A score of 5 was marked by frequent displays of shared positive affect with the dyad showing definite pleasure with each other (eg, high frequency of smiling, laughing, praise, and warmth).A score of 5 was marked by the dyad being comfortably nestled together with a shared view of the book, a highly responsive parent, and an actively engaged child who exhibits minimal defiance.