TABLE 3

Logistic Regression of Parent and Adolescent Characteristics on Adolescent Lifetime Use of NMPOs (2004–2012 NSDUH)

Characteristics OR (95% CI), (n = 35 000) aOR (95% CI), (n = 35 000)
Parents
 Age1.00 (0.99–1.01)1.00 (0.99–1.01)
 Mothers (versus fathers)1.05 (0.93–1.19)1.02 (0.89–1.17)
 Education (versus college graduate)
  Some college1.39 (1.16–1.68)***1.09 (0.89–1.34)
  High school graduate or less1.64 (1.37–1.95)***1.19 (0.97–1.46)
 Marital status (versus married)
  Widowed1.43 (0.89–2.29)1.42 (0.82–2.46)
  Separated or divorced1.50 (1.26–1.78)***1.08 (0.90–1.31)
  Never married1.16 (0.94–1.42)0.94 (0.72–1.22)
 Lifetime substance use (versus never)
  NMPOs1.84 (1.58–2.15)***1.30 (1.09–1.56)**
  Smoking1.76 (1.51–2.05)***1.24 (1.02–1.51)*
  Alcohol1.63 (1.31–2.03)***1.23 (0.93–1.63)
  Marijuana1.65 (1.45–1.89)***1.13 (0.93–1.36)
  OIDsa1.76 (1.54–2.01)***1.18 (0.98–1.41)
 Perceived risk of drug useb0.86 (0.82–0.91)***0.93 (0.87–1.00)*
 Lifetime depression (versus never)1.38 (1.16–1.65)***1.04 (0.85–1.26)
 Perceived parenting by child (past 12 mo)b
  Lack of monitoring1.59 (1.50–1.68)***1.21 (1.12–1.31)***
  Lack of support1.43 (1.35–1.51)***1.05 (0.98–1.12)
  Conflict1.54 (1.44–1.65)***1.19 (1.10–1.29)***
Adolescents
 Age1.34 (1.28–1.39)***1.27 (1.21–1.34)***
 Boys (versus girls)0.92 (0.80–1.05)0.89 (0.76–1.03)
 Race and/or ethnicity (versus African American)
  White1.13 (0.92–1.39)1.06 (0.83–1.36)
  Hispanic1.07 (0.84–1.36)1.08 (0.81–1.43)
  Other0.83 (0.60–1.16)0.97 (0.67–1.40)
 Religiosityb0.71 (0.67–0.76)***0.92 (0.86–0.99)*
 Initiated other drug before NMPO (versus same age, after, or did not use)
  Cigarettes3.01 (2.64–3.43)***1.37 (1.14–1.65)***
  Alcohol1.65 (1.46–1.87)***0.47 (0.39–0.55)***
  Marijuana3.03 (2.63–3.50)***1.25 (1.02–1.53)*
  OIDsa3.66 (2.72–4.93)***0.98 (0.63–1.51)
 Perceived risk of drug useb0.71 (0.68–0.75)***0.77 (0.72–0.82)***
 Perceived drug use of schoolmates (versus none or some use)c
  Most or all use3.54 (3.04–4.11)***1.71 (1.44–2.04)***
 Delinquency (past 12 mo)b1.72 (1.63–1.80)***1.50 (1.42–1.59)***
 Lifetime depression (versus never)2.83 (2.43–3.29)***1.62 (1.37–1.93)***
  • Weighted estimates.

  • a Cocaine, crack, heroin, or hallucinogens.

  • b Standardized scores.

  • c Smoking, alcohol, or marijuana.

  • * P < .05; ** P < .01; *** P < .001.