TABLE 2

Survey-Adjusted Regression Analyses and Means of School Functioning, Substance Use, Mental Health of Heterosexual and LGBTQ Youth in Stable Housing, Unstable Housing, and Foster Care

HeterosexualLGBTQMainInteraction
Stable HousingUnstable HousingFoster CareStable HousingUnstable HousingFoster CareLGBTQUnstable HousingFoster CareLGBTQ × UnstableLGBTQ × Foster Care
Mean (SE) or %Mean (SE) or %Mean (SE) or %Mean (SE) or %Mean (SE) or %Mean (SE) or %B or ORB or ORB or ORB or ORB or OR
School functioning
 Grades past 12 mo3.11 (0.02)3.85 (0.02)3.94 (0.05)3.43 (0.02)4.09 (0.04)a,b4.21 (0.08)0.37***0.73***0.82***−0.10*−0.00
 Absenteeism past 12 mo1.84 (0.01)2.33 (0.02)2.67 (0.05)2.11 (0.02)2.97 (0.04)a,b3.12 (0.07)0.28***0.60***0.84***0.40***0.16
 Perceived school safety3.73 (0.01)3.49 (0.01)3.53 (0.03)3.15 (0.02)3.14 (0.02)a,b3.20 (0.04)−0.27***−0.26***−0.21***−0.07**−0.08
 School climate−0.01 (0.01)−0.23 (0.01)−0.19 (0.02)−0.18 (0.01)−0.43 (0.01)a,b−0.32 (0.03)−0.17***−0.23***−0.16***−0.03*0.04
 Fights in school1.18 (0.00)1.34 (0.01)1.45 (0.02)1.35 (0.01)1.76 (0.02)a,b1.81 (0.03)a,c0.19***0.21***0.30***0.23***0.16***
 Victimization1.43 (0.00)1.54 (0.01)1.63 (0.02)1.74 (0.01)2.00 (0.02)a,b2.07 (0.03)a,c0.31***0.14***0.22***0.13***0.10*
Substance use
 Substance use during past 30 d1.35 (0.01)1.61 (0.01)1.84 (0.03)1.59 (0.01)2.12 (0.03)a,b2.22 (0.05)0.26***0.33***0.50***0.26***0.11
 Drunk or sick after drinking alcohol1.58 (0.01)1.89 (0.02)2.25 (0.06)2.51 (0.03)2.46 (0.03)a,b2.74 (0.07)0.32***0.40***0.70***0.28***0.16
Mental health
 Depressed for 2 wk or more during past 12 mo29.2335.5637.3153.2352.34b57.75c2.50***1.32***1.40***0.73***0.82*
 Seriously considered suicide past 12 mo15.1320.9225.0439.7543.30a,b48.55a,c3.39***1.43***1.69***0.80***0.73**
  • Controlling for student age and sex. Stable housing is the reference category. Sample sizes ranged from 476 922 (depressive symptoms) to 482 779 (school climate). OR, odds ratio.

  • a Significantly different from LGBTQ youth in stable housing (P < .05).

  • b Significantly different from heterosexual youth in unstable housing (P < .05).

  • c Significantly different from heterosexual youth in foster care (P < .05).

  • * P < .05; ** P < .005; *** P < .001.