TABLE 1

Baseline Characteristics of Participants

CharacteristicaControl Group (N = 114)PM Group (N = 123)
Selected sociodemographic characteristics
 Median child age (IQR), y7 (4–12)7 (3–10)
 Female child gender, n (%)b47 (41)72 (58)
Child race/ethnicity, n (%)c
 Latino75 (66)80 (65)
 African-American39 (34)43 (35)
Mean caregiver age, y37.5 ± 10.935.7 ± 9.4
Female caregiver gender, n (%)110 (96)117 (95)
Primary caregiver’s relationship to child, n (%)
 Biological mother101 (89)114 (93)
 Biological father3 (3)5 (4)
 Other10 (9)4 (3)
Caregiver not high-school graduate36 (32)49 (40)
Caregiver unemployed82 (72)97 (79)
Primary caregiver born in US51 (45)63 (51)
Primary caregiver US citizen59 (52)64 (52)
Median annual combined family income (IQR)$21 300 ($13 100–$29 000)$20 800 ($14 000–$30 000)
Median months child uninsured (IQR)8 (3–24)6 (4–12)
Health status and health-related quality of life
 Child’s health status not excellent or very good, n (%)c50 (44)43 (35)
 PedsQL total score89.7 ± 11.688.3 ± 14.6
Access to care and unmet needs, n (%)
 Child has no PCP75 (66)75 (61)
 Child has no usual source of preventive care52 (46)43 (35)
 Child has no usual source of sick care20 (18)21 (17)
 Different source of sick care and preventive care65 (57)62 (50)
 Never/sometimes gets immediate care from PCP13 (27)9 (16)
 Has problems getting care from specialistsd12 (46)7 (41)
 Delayed or did not get needed health care in past year85 (75)85 (69)
 Did not receive all needed preventive care in past year44 (54)44 (50)
 Did not receive all needed acute care in past year43 (81)62 (82)
 Did not receive all needed dental care in past year57 (63)60 (59)
 Did not receive all needed prescription medications in past year15 (24)9 (13)
Use of health services and out-of-pocket costse
 Doctor visits in past year3.2 ± 0.43.0 ± 0.2
 Out-of-pocket cost per doctor visit$161.31 ± 71.3$121.90 ± 27.7
 Preventive-care visits in past year1.0 ± 0.10.9 ± 0.1
 Out-of-pocket cost per preventive-care visit$64.32 ± 26.8$29.11 ± 7.8
 Sick visits in past year1.7 ± 0.31.6 ± 0.2
 Out-of-pocket cost per sick visit$201.39 ± 99.7$188.84 ± 61.2
 ED visits in past year1.0 ± 0.30.7 ± 0.1
 Out-of-pocket cost per ED visit$351.19 ± 194.4$499.58 ± 163.3
 Hospitalizations in past year0.2 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.1
 Out-of-pocket cost per hospitalization$1500 ± 1250$633 ± 535.20
Quality of caref
 Quality rating of child’s well-child care8.2 ± 2.18.5 ± 1.9
 Quality rating of child’s PCP8.7 ± 2.29.1 ± 1.6
 Quality rating of child’s acute care8.7 ± 2.28.6 ± 2.0
 Quality rating of child’s specialty care8.6 ± 0.57.7 ± 4.0
Parental satisfaction with care, n (%)
 Doctor never/sometimes takes time to understand child’s specific needs25 (22)27 (22)
 Doctor never/sometimes respects you are expert on your child17 (15)20 (16)
 Doctor never/sometimes understands how you prefer to raise child34 (30)34 (28)
 Doctor did not spend enough time with child17 (15)19 (16)
 Did not ask all questions I wanted to ask16 (17)14 (14)
 Would not recommend child’s health care provider to friends32 (28)23 (19)
Family financial burden and missed school and work days due to child’s illness, n (%)
 Need additional income to cover child’s medical expenses51 (45)51 (42)
 Child’s health caused financial problems for family40 (35)44 (36)
 Family cut down on work hours to obtain health care for child26 (23)25 (21)
 Median no. of missed school days in past year (IQR)2 (1–5)2 (1–5)
 Median no. of missed work days in past year due to child’s illness (IQR)0 (0–1)0 (0–2)
 Median caregiver wage loss due to missed work days to care for sick child (IQR)$155 ($75–$276)$208 ($100–$324)
 Median other costs related to taking care of sick child (IQR)$70 ($20–$200)$45 ($25–$87.50)
  • IQR, interquartile range; PedsQL, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4.0 Generic Core Scales.

  • baseline characteristics, except where noted.

  • a Plus-minus values are means ± SD, except where noted. There were no significant intergroup differences in

  • b P = .02.

  • c By caregiver report.

  • d Among those who reported that their child needed specialty care.

  • e Plus-minus values are means ± SE.

  • f By caregiver report, using a scale of 0 to 10, in which 0 = worst possible rating and 10 = best possible rating.