TABLE 2

Number and Percent of Fathers and Children Who Experienced and Avoided Stigma by Social Context

Father StigmaChild Stigma
ActiveAvoidActiveAvoid
n%n%n%n%
Family16923.914720.73510.6329.5
Neighbors19527.714620.74614.73210.2
Religious15134.814131.93717.02813.0
Health care7811.2497.02123.792.7
Child’s school9118.3510.15016.4258.2
Dad’s gay friends16723.710715.2NANANANA
Dad’s straight friends14119.710114.1NANANANA
Workplace11116.39413.7NANANANA
Restaurant, salespeople18025.58912.7NANANANA
Child’s friendsNANANANA9632.85418.6
Child’s extracurricularsNANANANA4214.3278.9
Only 1 context15921.815921.95916.85014.2
2–3 contexts16522.612517.25415.3308.6
4 or more contexts13919.18812.1277.7185.1
  • Fathers were asked about stigma directed at children if at least 1 child was age 5–18. Because of responses of “don’t know” or “not applicable,” denominators for percentages vary by context, particularly for child reports, for which denominators range from 216 to 418. NA, not applicable.