TABLE 5

Multivariate Predictors of Epinephrine Prescription, Lifetime ED Visits, and Last Year ED Visits

Current Epinephrine PrescriptionLifetime ED VisitsLast Year ED Visits
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Race and/or ethnicity (versus white, non-Hispanic)
 Asian American, non-Hispanic1.30.7–2.50.90.6–1.61.00.5–2.0
 African American, non-Hispanic0.80.5–1.21.30.9–1.81.40.8–2.3
 Hispanic0.80.6–1.21.5*1.1–2.1*1.10.7–1.6
 Multiracial and/or other0.90.6–1.50.90.5–1.61.40.8–2.7
Sex
 Female versus male1.10.9–1.50.90.7–1.21.00.7–1.3
Age in y (versus 0–1 y)
 10.90.4–2.01.20.5–2.90.90.4–2.1
 20.70.3–1.63.4*1.3–9.0*2.00.7–5.6
 3–51.30.7–2.61.80.9–3.50.80.4–1.6
 6–101.00.5–1.92.8*1.4–5.4*0.70.3–1.4
 11–131.00.5–2.01.80.9–3.50.4*0.2–0.8*
 14–170.80.4–1.62.1*1.1–4.1*0.5*0.2–0.9*
Household income (versus <$25 000/y)
 $25 000–$49 9990.70.5–1.10.90.6–1.40.4*0.3–0.7*
 $50 000–$99 9991.10.8–1.71.00.7–1.50.6*0.4–1.0*
 $100 000–$149 9991.20.8–1.90.90.5–1.50.60.3–1.1
 >$150 0001.30.7–2.30.6*0.3–1.0*0.4*0.2–0.7*
Geographic location (versus Midwest)
 West0.90.7–1.41.30.9–1.91.8*1.1–2.9*
 South1.10.8–1.50.80.6–1.20.90.6–1.4
 Northeast1.8*1.1–2.7*0.90.6–1.31.20.7–2.0
One or more physician-diagnosed FA4.3*3.2–5.8*1.8*1.3–2.4*1.40.9–2.0
Multiple FA versus 1 FA0.80.6–1.21.5*1.1–2.0*1.5*1.0–2.1*
Has epinephrine1.5*1.2–2.0*1.41.0–2.0
One or more lifetime ED visit1.6*1.2–2.0*
One or more severe FA2.1*1.6–2.7*1.9*1.4–2.4*1.00.8–1.4
Specific FAs (versus absence of that allergy)
 Peanut3.9*2.9–5.2*0.90.7–1.31.00.8–1.4
 Tree nut1.60.9–2.90.5*0.3–0.9*1.20.7–2.2
 Almond1.00.5–1.81.61.0–2.71.00.5–1.7
 Walnut1.40.7–2.70.90.5–1.50.70.4–1.2
 Cashew1.30.7–2.51.10.6–1.91.20.7–2.2
 Hazelnut0.70.3–1.41.20.7–2.21.20.7–2.3
 Pistachio2.5*1.3–5.0*0.90.5–1.70.60.3–1.2
 Pecan0.80.4–1.51.00.5–1.81.00.5–2.0
 Other tree nut1.30.3–6.80.60.1–2.80.90.1–8.9
 Sesame1.40.6–3.21.30.7–2.31.50.8–2.9
 Milk0.5*0.3–0.6*1.6*1.1–2.3*1.7*1.1–2.6*
 Egg1.30.8–2.11.20.8–1.81.7*1.0–2.6*
 Finfish0.80.4–1.42.2*1.3–3.6*2.2*1.3–3.7*
 Shellfish1.10.4–3.41.20.6–2.30.50.3–1.1
 Shrimp1.40.5–4.10.70.4–1.32.01.0–4.0
 Lobster0.70.3–1.60.90.5–1.60.50.3–1.1
 Crab1.70.6–4.91.50.8–2.92.11.0–4.4
 Mollusk0.40.2–1.01.40.8–2.41.20.6–2.3
 Other shellfish0.90.2–3.90.3*0.1–1.0*0.40.1–2.0
 Soy0.70.4–1.11.20.7–2.01.60.9–2.8
 Wheat0.70.4–1.20.80.4–1.60.70.4–1.2
Physician-diagnosed comorbidities (versus absence of that condition)
 Asthma1.20.9–1.62.1*1.6–2.7*1.8*1.3–2.5*
 Atopic dermatitis and/or eczema1.41.0–2.00.6*0.4–0.9*0.80.5–1.2
 Eosinophilic esophagitis3.11.0–10.02.50.8–7.33.6*1.1–11.1*
 Allergic rhinitis0.90.7–1.20.90.7–1.20.80.6–1.1
 Insect sting allergy1.60.9–2.81.6*1.0–2.4*0.80.5–1.2
 Latex allergy2.6*1.5–4.6*0.90.5–1.61.20.8–2.0
 Medication allergy1.8*1.2–2.7*1.00.7–1.60.70.5–1.1
 Urticaria and/or chronic hives0.60.2–2.02.5*1.2–5.5*2.5*1.1–6.0*
 Other chronic condition1.6*1.0–2.6*0.80.5–1.30.4*0.2–0.8*
  • —, not applicable.

  • * Two-sided P < .05