TABLE 3

Multivariable Logistic Regression Results for the Association of Any Exposure to Antibiotics at <24 Months of Age and Risk of Overweight and/or Obesity at 48–<72 Months of Age, by Timing of Antibiotic Prescription

AntibioticsNo Complex Chronic Condition, N = 310 947Complex Chronic Condition, N = 51 603
Model 1,a OR (95% CI)Model 2,b OR (95% CI)Model 1,a OR (95% CI)Model 2,b OR (95% CI)
Any, mo
 0–<241.10 (1.08 to 1.12)1.05 (1.03 to 1.07)1.09 (1.05 to 1.13)1.01 (0.97 to 1.06)
 0–<6c,d1.13 (1.11 to 1.16)1.07 (1.04 to 1.09)1.09 (1.04 to 1.14)1.04 (0.99 to 1.10)
 6–<12c,d1.10 (1.08 to 1.12)1.03 (1.01 to 1.05)1.05 (1.01 to 1.10)0.98 (0.93 to 1.03)
 12–<24c,d1.09 (1.07 to 1.11)1.03 (1.01 to 1.05)1.11 (1.06 to 1.15)1.03 (0.98 to 1.08)
Broad spectrum, mo
 0–<241.11 (1.09 to 1.13)1.07 (1.05 to 1.09)1.12 (1.07 to 1.16)1.06 (1.01 to 1.11)
 0–<6c,d1.14 (1.10 to 1.18)1.07 (1.03 to 1.11)1.07 (1.01 to 1.14)1.03 (0.97 to 1.10)
 6–<12c,d1.10 (1.08 to 1.12)1.04 (1.01 to 1.06)1.08 (1.03 to 1.13)1.02 (0.97 to 1.07)
 12–<24c,d1.10 (1.08 to 1.12)1.05 (1.03 to 1.07)1.15 (1.10 to 1.20)1.08 (1.03 to 1.13)
Narrow spectrum,e mo
 0–<24 mo1.06 (1.04 to 1.08)1.02 (1.00 to 1.04)1.01 (0.96 to 1.07)0.96 (0.91 to 1.02)
 0–<6c,d1.13 (1.09 to 1.16)1.06 (1.03 to 1.09)1.10 (1.02 to 1.19)1.04 (0.96 to 1.13)
 6–<12c,d1.08 (1.06 to 1.11)1.02 (1.00 to 1.05)1.00 (0.93 to 1.07)0.93 (0.87 to 1.00)
 12–<24c,d1.06 (1.03 to 1.08)1.01 (0.99 to 1.04)1.01 (0.95 to 1.08)0.97 (0.90 to 1.04)
  • OR, odds ratio.

  • a Corrected for clustering by site.

  • b Corrected for clustering by site and adjusted for sex, race, ethnicity, preterm birth, asthma, corticosteroid episodes (continuous, 0–4+) at 0–<24 months of age, number of encounters (continuous, log transformed) at 0–<24 months of age, infection episodes (continuous, log transformed) at 0–<24 months of age, and age at outcome.

  • c For exposure time windows, Model 2 was additionally adjusted for previous antibiotics: (1) antibiotics at 6–<12 months, adjusted for 0–<6 months antibiotics and (2) antibiotics at 12–<24 months, adjusted for 0–<12 months antibiotics.

  • d For exposure time windows, covariates were used during the same time window (corticosteroids and encounters): (1) antibiotics at 0–<6 months, covariates used for 0–<6 months; (2) antibiotics at 6–<12 months, covariates used for 6–<12 months; and (3) antibiotics at 12–<24 months, covariates used for 12–<24 months.

  • e For narrow antibiotic exposures, analyses were limited to participants with no broad-spectrum antibiotics during the same time window as exposure or before.