TABLE 2

Neurobehavioral Outcomes

OutcomeMax naCaffeine GroupPlacebo GroupUnadjusted MD (95% CI)MD Adjusted for Center (95% CI)PMD Adjusted for Center and Patient Characteristics (95% CI)b
nMean ± SDnMean ± SD
Fine motor skills1065
 Beery VMI40990.7 ± 13.140688.9 ± 13.81.8 (−0.1 to 3.6)1.8 (0.0 to 3.7)< .051.5 (−0.3 to 3.3)
 Visual perception40797.7 ± 12.939795.6 ± 13.42.1 (0.2 to 3.9)2.0 (0.3 to 3.8).021.9 (0.1 to 3.6)
 Motor coordination40690.8 ± 15.839788.0 ± 17.02.9 (0.6 to 5.2)2.9 (0.7 to 5.1).012.3 (0.1 to 4.4)
General intelligence (WASI-II)1041
 Full-scale IQ39297.0 ± 14.939395.5 ± 14.71.5 (−0.5 to 3.6)1.6 (−0.5 to 3.6).141.4 (−0.6 to 3.3)
 Verbal comprehension39297.8 ± 15.539497.0 ± 14.90.9 (−1.3 to 3.0)0.9 (−1.2 to 3.0).390.7 (−1.4 to 2.7)
 Perceptional reasoning39296.8 ± 14.939595.2 ± 14.91.6 (−0.5 to 3.7)1.6 (−0.5 to 3.6).131.4 (−0.6 to 3.4)
Attention
 TEA-Ch1065
  Selective, Sky Search40410.8 ± 3.140010.8 ± 3.10.0 (−0.4 to 0.4)0.0 (−0.4 to 0.4).960.0 (−0.5 to 0.4)
  Sustained, Score!4028.5 ± 3.63998.2 ± 3.60.3 (−0.2 to 0.8)0.3 (−0.2 to 0.8).210.2 (−0.2 to 0.7)
  Divided, Sky Search DT3956.8 ± 3.33906.5 ± 3.40.2 (−0.2 to 0.7)0.2 (−0.2 to 0.7).360.1 (−0.3 to 0.6)
  Task decrement shifting, Creature Counting3969.3 ± 3.23939.2 ± 3.30.1 (−0.3 to 0.6)0.1 (−0.3, 0.5).650.0 (−0.4 to 0.5)
 Conners ADHD index1114
  T-score42961.5 ± 18.243560.7 ± 18.40.7 (−1.7 to 3.2)0.6 (−1.8 to 3.0).611.2 (−1.2 to 3.5)
  Probability score42945.2 ± 33.543543.6 ± 33.51.6 (−2.9 to 6.0)1.3 (−3.1 to 5.8).562.4 (−1.9 to 6.7)
Executive function
 RCF1065
  Copy score40522.8 ± 5.340021.6 ± 6.11.1 (0.4 to 1.9)1.2 (0.4 to 2.0).0031.1 (0.3 to 1.8)
  Recall score40612.6 ± 5.139912.0 ± 5.80.5 (−0.2 to 1.3)0.6 (−0.1 to 1.3).110.5 (−0.3 to 1.2)
  Strategy score3924.0 ± 1.03874.0 ± 1.10.0 (−0.1 to 0.2)0.0 (−0.1 to 0.2).560.0 (−0.1 to 0.2)
 BRIEF parent T-scores1114
  GEC42955.9 ± 12.543454.8 ± 12.31.2 (−0.5 to 2.8)1.1 (−0.5 to 2.8).181.4 (−0.3 to 3.0)
  Metacognition index42955.8 ± 11.743454.7 ± 11.61.1 (−0.5 to 2.7)1.1 (−0.5 to 2.6).191.2 (−0.3 to 2.7)
  BRI43154.9 ± 13.643653.9 ± 13.21.0 (−0.8 to 2.8)1.0 (−0.8 to 2.7).301.3 (−0.5 to 3.0)
 WISC-IV digit span1041
  Digit span forward4058.8 ± 3.44068.6 ± 3.30.2 (−0.2 to 0.7)0.3 (−0.1 to 0.7).160.2 (−0.2 to 0.6)
  Digit span backward4058.4 ± 2.94068.2 ± 2.90.2 (−0.2 to 0.6)0.2 (−0.2 to 0.6).270.2 (−0.2 to 0.6)
  • DT, Dual Task

  • a Number of randomly assigned children not known to have died before follow-up who were eligible for assessment with the designated instrument.

  • b The MD was adjusted for the gestational age and sex of the child, antenatal administration of corticosteroids, multiple births, and the primary caregiver’s education at the time of the assessment.