TABLE 3

Association Between Sex, Uropathogen, Etiology of Neurogenic Bladder, and Leukocyte Esterase

PredictorsCultures ≥10 000 CFU/mLCultures ≥100 000 CFU/mL
Odds of Leukocyte Esterase Greater Than Trace95% CIOdds of Leukocyte Esterase Greater Than Trace95% CI
Sex
 FemaleReferenceReference
 Male1.44a(1.16–1.80)a1.33a(1.15–1.80)a
Uropathogen
E coliRefRef
P aeruginosa1.53(0.97–2.51)1.74(0.96–3.35)
S saprophyticus1.56(0.22–31.07)b
Enterococcus species0.63a(0.47–0.86)a0.45a(0.31–0.64)a
Klebsiella species0.84(0.61–1.16)0.94(0.66–1.34)
Proteus species3.14a(1.67–6.60)a3.40a(1.68–7.85)a
Enterobacter species1.04(0.63–1.77)0.84(0.50–1.42)
 Other0.97(0.73–1.28)1.20(0.86–1.68)
Etiology of neurogenic bladder
 MyelomeningoceleReferenceReference
 Anorectal malformation1.33(0.92–1.94)1.32(0.86–2.09)
 Tethered cord1.19(0.81–1.75)1.53(0.97–2.46)
 Bladder exstrophy1.03(0.49–2.41)2.28(0.83–8.06)
 Cloacal malformation1.49a(1.01–2.25)a1.85a(1.10–3.24)a
 Spinal cord injury0.41a(0.18–0.97)a1.12(0.50–2.62)
 Eagle-Barrett syndrome1.95(0.64–8.45)2.62(0.47–49.49)
 Other1.19(0.94–1.50)1.11(0.86–1.45)
Presence of mitrofanoff1.80a(1.40–2.31)a1.93a(1.42–2.66)a
Presence of hydronephrosis1.06(0.55–2.17)1.23(0.56–3.02)
Presence of VUR2.32a(1.77–3.07)a3.25a(2.33–4.62)a
  • —, not applicable.

  • a Indicates statistical significance.

  • b Unable to be computed because of a small sample size.