TABLE 3

Rates of Impairment in Neurobehavioral Outcome

OutcomeThreshold ScoreaNo./Total No. (%)OR (95% CI)
Caffeine Group Impairment RatePlacebo Group Impairment RateUnadjustedAdjusted for CenterPAdjusted for Center and Patient Characteristicsb
Fine motor skills
 Beery VMI<85108/409 (26.4)133/406 (32.8)0.74 (0.54 to 1.00)0.74 (0.55 to 0.99).040.77 (0.57 to 1.04)
 Visual perception<8554/407 (13.3)77/397 (19.4)0.64 (0.44 to 0.93)0.63 (0.43 to 0.92).020.64 (0.43 to 0.95)
 Motor coordination<85122/406 (30.0)151/397 (38.0)0.70 (0.52 to 0.94)0.69 (0.52 to 0.92).010.73 (0.54 to 0.98)
General intelligence (WASI-II)
 Full-scale IQ<8576/392 (19.4)86/393 (21.9)0.86 (0.61 to 1.21)0.87 (0.61 to 1.23).430.89 (0.62 to 1.27)
 Verbal comprehension<8572/392 (18.4)69/394 (17.5)1.06 (0.74 to 1.53)1.11 (0.77 to 1.59).591.13 (0.77 to 1.64)
 Perceptional reasoning<8579/392 (20.2)95/395 (24.1)0.80 (0.57 to 1.12)0.78 (0.55 to 1.10).160.80 (0.56 to 1.13)
Attention
 TEA-Ch
  Selective, Sky Search<736/404 (8.9)37/400 (9.3)0.96 (0.59 to 1.55)0.97 (0.59 to 1.58).891.02 (0.62 to 1.67)
  Sustained, Score!<7125/402 (31.1)141/399 (35.3)0.83 (0.62 to 1.11)0.84 (0.62 to 1.12).230.87 (0.64 to 1.16)
  Divided, Sky Search DT<7146/395 (37.0)152/390 (39.0)0.92 (0.69 to 1.23)0.93 (0.69 to 1.24).610.97 (0.72 to 1.31)
  Shifting, creature counting<784/396 (21.2)86/393 (21.9)0.96 (0.68 to 1.35)0.99 (0.70 to 1.41).961.08 (0.75 to 1.56)
 Conners ADHD index
  T-score>80178/429 (41.5)170/435 (39.1)1.11 (0.84 to 1.45)1.08 (0.82 to 1.41).601.15 (0.87 to 1.53)
  Probability score>80144/429 (33.6)143/435 (32.9)1.03 (0.78 to 1.37)1.00 (0.75 to 1.31).981.05 (0.79 to 1.40)
Executive function
 RCF
  Copy score<1 SDc385/405 (95.1)383/400 (95.8)0.85 (0.44 to 1.66)0.83 (0.43 to 1.62).590.82 (0.42 to 1.61)
  Recall score<1 SDc296/406 (72.9)296/399 (74.2)0.94 (0.68 to 1.28)0.91 (0.67 to 1.25).570.96 (0.70 to 1.31)
 BRIEF parent T-scores
  GEC>60137/429 (31.9)130/434 (30.0)1.10 (0.82 to 1.46)1.08 (0.80 to 1.45).621.11 (0.82 to 1.51)
  Metacognition index>60144/429 (33.6)125/434 (28.8)1.25 (0.94 to 1.67)1.23 (0.92 to 1.65).161.29 (0.95 to 1.73)
  BRI>60125/431 (29.0)112/436 (25.7)1.18 (0.88 to 1.59)1.18 (0.87 to 1.60).291.24 (0.90 to 1.69)
 WISC-IV digit span
  Digit span forward<7118/405 (29.1)125/406 (30.8)0.92 (0.68 to 1.25)0.90 (0.65 to 1.23).500.92 (0.67 to 1.28)
  Digit span backward<7112/405 (27.7)126/406 (31.0)0.85 (0.63 to 1.15)0.83 (0.61 to 1.14).250.86 (0.63 to 1.18)
  • DT, Dual Task.

  • a Threshold score used to define impairment for the respective instrument. For all tests, this corresponded to 1 SD below or above the mean of the normative sample, depending on the test.

  • b The OR was adjusted for the gestational age and sex of the child, antenatal administration of corticosteroids, multiple births, and the primary caregiver's education at the time of the assessment.

  • c Threshold scores are age-dependent.