TABLE 1

Characteristics of Children Who Visit EDs by Annual Pediatric Volume Quartile

Annual Pediatric Volume, ED Quartilea
1, N (%)2, N (%)3, N (%)4, N (%)
Pediatric visits per y≤27032742–58776014–12 010≥12 026
ED visits198 411 (4.6)578 001 (13.5)903 246 (21.1)2 594 829 (60.7)
State
 Maryland6458 (3.3)29 018 (5.0)139 178 (15.4)248 609 (9.6)
 New York191 953 (96.7)548 983 (95.0)764 068 (84.6)2 346 220 (90.4)
Female sex95 533 (48.1)276 931 (47.9)431 879 (47.8)1 227 794 (47.3)
Age, y
 <111 167 (5.6)42 907 (7.4)86 225 (9.5)331 719 (12.8)
 1–449 173 (24.8)157 472 (27.2)275 251 (30.5)915 369 (35.3)
 5–727 144 (13.7)79 549 (13.8)128 666 (14.2)401 481 (15.5)
 8–1134 725 (17.5)95 539 (16.5)139 442 (15.4)373 905 (14.4)
 ≥1276 202 (38.4)202 534 (35.0)273 662 (30.3)572 355 (22.1)
ED Medicaid rate, quartile (% Medicaid visits)
 1 (≤35.6)77 757 (39.2)188 651 (32.6)113 160 (12.5)286 034 (11.0)
 2 (35.7–46.6)74 686 (37.6)154 944 (26.8)325 150 (36.0)183 972 (7.1)
 3 (46.7–61.9)39 490 (19.9)152 029 (26.3)273 490 (30.3)467 352 (18.0)
 4 (≥62.0)6478 (3.3)82 377 (14.3)191 446 (21.2)1 657 471 (63.9)
ED location
 Urban121 061 (63.6)387 057 (67.3)817 259 (92.2)2 594 829 (100.0)
 Nonurban69 370 (36.4)187 670 (32.7)68 874 (7.8)0
Weekend64 206 (32.2)187 186 (32.2)277 705 (30.6)741 410 (28.4)
Median income for zip code, quartile
 1, lowest income43 694 (22.4)112 757 (19.9)202 877 (22.7)1 042 931 (40.3)
 283 698 (42.8)220 777 (38.9)194 879 (21.8)472 893 (18.3)
 339 602 (20.3)110 495 (19.5)205 001 (22.9)510 796 (19.8)
 4, highest income28 430 (14.5)123 576 (21.8)292 188 (32.6)558 530 (21.6)
No. CCCs19
 0–1197 554 (99.6)576 052 (99.7)899 827 (99.6)2 572 080 (99.1)
 2707 (0.4)1518 (0.3)2735 (0.3)16 564 (0.6)
 3133 (0.1)293 (0.1)500 (0.1)4285 (0.2)
 ≥417 (0.0)138 (0.0)184 (0.0)1900 (0.1)
Visit severity18
 1, lowest severity8911 (4.7)22 253 (4.0)34 544 (4.0)102 850 (4.1)
 2103 997 (54.3)287 283 (51.4)433 352 (49.9)1 262 110 (50.9)
 372 476 (37.9)228 795 (40.9)369 653 (42.5)1 029 867 (41.5)
 45928 (3.1)20 034 (3.6)30 371 (3.5)82 349 (3.3)
 5, highest severity166 (0.1)496 (0.1)892 (0.1)3898 (0.2)
  • a ED-level pediatric volume. Lower-volume EDs have fewer visits per y, leading to smaller group sizes.