TABLE 1

Study Sample Characteristics by Parental ACE Exposure

All n = 311Maternal ACEsAll n = 122Paternal ACEs
≥1 (n = 149)0 (n = 162)Pa≥1 (n = 58)0 (n = 64)Pa
Parental characteristics
 Payer, %.22.60
  Public29.632.926.523.825.721.9
  Private70.467.173.576.274.178.1
 Depressive symptomsb, %<.01
  High4.27.41.2
  Low78.576.580.3
  Missing17.416.118.5
 Early life resiliencec, %<.01.03
  Low20.630.211.731.239.723.4
  High76.265.186.466.455.276.6
  Missing3.24.71.92.55.20
Child characteristics
 Age (mo), mean ± SD4.2 ± 0.54.2 ± 0.54.2 ± 0.5.574.2 ± 0.54.1 ± 0.34.3 ± 0.5.16
 Race, %.01.01
  White54.759.750.051.665.539.1
  Nonwhite25.418.831.527.119.034.4
  Missing19.921.518.521.315.526.6
 Sex, %.93.47
  Female48.648.348.848.451.745.3
  Male51.451.751.251.648.354.7
 Gestational age at birth, %.08.10
  <37 wk7.44.79.99.85.214.1
  ≥37 wk84.987.382.785.389.781.3
  Missing7.78.17.44.95.24.7
 Developmental riskd, %.10.33
  Elevated (assess further)19.022.815.415.619.012.5
  Normative81.077.284.684.481.087.5
 EI eligibilitye, %.03.62
  Yes5.88.73.12.51.73.1
  No93.990.696.997.598.396.9
  Missing0.30.70000
  • —, not applicable

  • a P values were derived from χ2 tests (categorical variables) or t tests performed on nonmissing data.

  • b High depressive symptoms were defined as a score ≥10 on the EPDS.

  • c Low protective factors determined from total score on resilience inventory <13 (25th percentile of distribution).

  • d Suspected developmental delay as determined from the 24-mo ASQ-III.

  • e Evaluation performed by EI services; eligibility due to reasons other than physical conditions known to increase the likelihood for a developmental delay.