TABLE 1

Sample Characteristics

DemographicsFamily-Homeless AdolescentsNonhomeless AdolescentsPaORa (95% CI)
n (%)4594 (4.1)108 603 (95.9)<.0001
Sex, n (%)<.0001
 Male2522 (54.9)53 307 (49.1)
 Female2072 (45.1)55 296 (50.9)
Grade, n (%)<.0001
 81956 (42.6)37 681 (34.70)
 91663 (36.2)37 312 (34.4)
 11975 (21.22)33 610 (31)
Race, n (%)<.0001
 White2687 (59.3)81 683 (76)
 Black, African, or African American342 (7.6)4812 (4.5)
 Hispanic516 (11.4)7319 (6.8)
 Asian American432 (9.5)5279 (4.9)
 American Indian116 (2.6)1166 (1.1)
 Mulitracial or unknown416 (9.2)7077 (6.6)
Free school lunch, n (%)2055 (45.5)26 617 (24.8)<.0001
School location, n (%)<.0001
 Metropolitan2319 (50.5)56 289 (51.8)
 Nonmetropolitan2275 (49.5)52 314 (48.2)
Emotional health outcomes, n (%)
 High emotional distress (last 12 mo)1884 (42)28 417 (26.6)<.00012.0 (1.9–2.1)
 SIB1317 (29.1)15 116 (14.0)<.00012.5 (2.3–2.7)
 Suicidal ideation940 (21)11 081 (10.4)<.00012.3 (2.1–2.5)
 Suicide attempt416 (9.3)3286 (3.1)<.00013.2 (2.9–3)
Developmental assets, mean [SD]
 Positive identity2.7 [0.7]2.9 [0.7]<.0001
 Social competency2.8 [0.7]3.1 [0.6]<.0001
 Empowerment2.7 [0.8]3.0 [0.8]<.0001
 Academic orientation3.1 [0.5]3.3 [0.5]<.0001
 Positive teacher2.9 [0.7]3 [0.6]<.0001
 High parent connectedness, n (%)2504 (97.8)68 791 (99)<.001
  • —, not applicable.

  • a aOR for family-homeless youth compared with housed youth. Adjusted for age, race and/or ethnicity, poverty (free and reduced-price school lunch), and school location (metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan).