TABLE 1

Characteristics of Included Participants, Defined as Those Completing the ACE Questionnaire (n = 671) Compared With Those Not Completing the Questionnaire

Participant CharacteristicRespondents (n = 671)Nonrespondents (n = 147)P
Patient demographics
 Child race, no. (%).03
  White404 (61)71 (49)
  Black or African American183 (28)53 (37)
  Multiracial, Hispanic, or other74 (11)20 (14)
 Public insurance or self-pay, no. (%)362 (54)94 (62).03
 Primary service: Hospital Medicine, no. (%)594 (89)118 (80).01
 Primary-care access score, mean (SD)86.6 (18.9)88.8 (18.5).21
Parent demographics
 Caregiver age, y, mean (SD)32.9 (7.9)32.4 (8.4).54
 Caregiver, female sex, no. (%)602 (90)129 (88).49
 Education, no. (%).08
  High school or less232 (35)62 (42)
 Part- or full-time employment, no. (%)446 (66)99 (67).84
 Household income.01
  <$15 000134 (20)34 (23)
  $15 000–$29 999111 (17)42 (29)
  $30 000–$44 99990 (13)15 (10)
  $45 000–$59 99977 (11)14 (10)
  $60 000–$89 999101 (15)12 (8)
  $90 000–$119 99962 (9)12 (8)
  ≥$120 00095 (14)16 (11)
 Strain items, no. (%)a.84
  0202 (30)39 (27)
  1–2240 (36)57 (39)
  3–4154 (23)34 (23)
  ≥575 (11)12 (12)
  • χ2 tests were used for categorical variables; t tests were used for continuous variables.

  • a Assessed difficulty making ends meet or paying rent, mortgage, or utilities; the need to move in with others because of finances; the ability to borrow money if needed; home ownership; and parental marital status.