TABLE 1

Demographics of Sample (N = 7028): Distribution of Demographic Characteristics and Bivariate Associations With Weight Status in Children Aged 2 to 5 Years, NHANES 1999–2014

Meana (SE)NW (<85th Percentile), n = 5291 (76.5%)OW (85th Percentile–94.9th Percentile), n = 918 (13.0%)Obesity (≥95th Percentile–1.2 × 95th Percentile), n = 662 (8.4%)SO (≥1.2 × 95th Percentile), n = 157 (2.1%)
Mean (SE)Coefficientb (95% CI)Mean (SE)Coefficient (95% CI)Mean (SE)Coefficient (95% CI)Mean (SE)Coefficient (95% CI)
Age
 Child (mo)47.7 (0.2)47.3 (0.2)cRef47.5 (0.6)0.16 (−1.0 to 1.3)49.6 (0.7)2.2* (0.7 to 3.8)56.5 (1.3)9.2* (6.6 to 11)
 Mother (y)27.5 (0.1)27.6 (0.1)Ref27.3 (0.3)−0.3 (−0.9 to 0.2)27.0 (0.3)−0.6* (−1.3 to 0.0)26.6 (0.6)−1.0 (−2.6 to 0.3)
n (%)an (%)OR (95% CI)cn (%)OR (95% CI)n (%)OR (95% CI)n (%)OR (95% CI)
Sex (child)
 Female3456 (49.6)2637 (50.2)Ref426 (46.8)Ref327 (47.8)Ref66 (48.1)Ref
 Male3572 (50.4)2654 (49.8)Ref492 (53.2)1.1 (0.9 to 1.4)335 (52.2)1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)91 (51.9)1.1 (0.7 to 1.6)
Race and/or ethnicity (child)
 Non-Hispanic white2045 (54.6)1604 (56.3)Ref264 (54.2)Ref146 (43.6)Ref31 (42.3)Ref
 Hispanic2522 (23.0)1782 (21.0)Ref361 (25.8)1.3* (1.0 to 1.6)304 (33.1)2.0* (1.6 to 2.6)75 (36.1)2.3* (1.4 to 3.7)
 Non-Hispanic African American1843 (14.4)1401 (14.2)Ref224 (13.4)1.0 (0.8 to 1.2)174 (16.4)1.5* (1.2 to 1.9)44 (18.5)1.7* (1.0 to 3.0)
 Other or mixed618 (8.0)504 (8.5)Ref69 (6.6)0.8 (0.6 to 1.2)38 (6.9)1.0 (0.7 to 1.7)7 (3.1)0.5 (0.2 to 1.2)
Household income, % FPL
 ≥3001360 (31.8)1109 (33.6)Ref145 (27.3)Ref90 (24.9)Ref16 (20.0)Ref
 200–299819 (14.8)623 (14.8)Ref104 (15.0)1.2 (0.9 to 1.7)76 (14.6)1.3* (1.2 to 2.2)16 (14.6)1.7 (0.6 to 4.1)
 100–1991810 (25.6)1330 (24.6)Ref252 (28.6)1.4* (1.1 to 1.9)181 (28.3)1.5* (1.0 to 2.2)47 (31.8)2.2* (1.0 to 4.4)
 <1002521 (27.8)1850 (27.0)Ref340 (29.1)1.3* (1.0 to 1.7)267 (32.2)1.6* (1.2 to 2.2)64 (33.6)2.1* (1.1 to 4.0)
Education (respondent)
 Any college3014 (54.9)2383 (57.5)Ref349 (48.1)Ref239 (47.0)Ref43 (35.8)Ref
 Less than HS or GED3778 (45.1)2735 (42.5)Ref544 (51.9)1.5* (1.2 to 1.8)392 (53.0)1.5* (1.2 to 1.9)107 (64.2)2.4* (1.5 to 3.9)
Marital status (respondent)
 Married4633 (78.8)3533 (79.7)Ref594 (77.8)Ref421 (75.0)Ref85 (66.4)Ref
 Single1932 (21.2)1401 (20.3)Ref269 (22.3)1.2 (0.9 to 1.4)202 (25.0)1.4* (1.1 to 1.7)60 (33.7)2.0* (1.3 to 3.0)
  • GED, general education diploma; HS, high school; Ref, reference.

  • a All N’s and n’s listed are unweighted (raw), all means and proportions are survey-weighted.

  • b Coefficients from unadjusted linear regression.

  • c ORs from unadjusted multinomial logistic regression.

  • * P < .05.